Friday, December 27, 2019
The Lottery is a fictional account of a group of villagers who conduct a yearly ceremony to determine at random who among their community will be ritually sacrificed. The villagers have come to believe annual participation in this ceremony will result in good fortune. Specifically, it is believed the success of the corn harvest and continued provision of sustenance in the community can only be assured through human sacrifice. Though only a fiction, The Lottery conveys to the reader a message, albeit rather abstractly, about the real world around us. This message is the story s central theme. By examining thematic elements of the story and concluding as to precisely what the main theme of the story is, the reader can derive an understanding as to the purpose and nature of the story, but perhaps even better yet can shine a light and narrowly glean a slight esoteric understanding of the author s state of mind and personal experiences. In the case of the lottery, that theme is as follows : times and technologies change, but people never will. The Lottery opens with a scene like that out of a Disney movie: the sky is blue, it s a warm sunny day, and the green pastures of the village have come to life. It is revealed that a lottery process would be commencing later in the morning on that late June day (June 27th) in the small village in which the story was set, and highlighted that surrounding towns engaged in the same process as evidenced by this segment of the text:Show MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery 1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquestion why. Suzanne CollinÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Hunger Games and Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ best illustrate this point by showing how a violent annual tradition affects a society and its innocent people. The Hunger Games has such uncanny similarities to Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ that it almost seems as if Collins used JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s story as a source of inspiration for her novel. Both The Hunger Games and Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ are extremely sim ilar thematically in the sense that sheepishly following tradition can oftenRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery 916 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Foreshadowing in Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ On a warm day in late June, villagers gather in the square to participate in a lottery run by Mr. Summers. The children arrive first and begin collecting stones until their parents call them to order. Mr. Summers calls each head of the household forward to a black wooden box, where each selects a slip of paper. Once the men have chosen, Mr. Summers allows everyone to open the paper and see who wins. Bill Hutchinson wins and his wife immediately starts protestingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery 961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesname. Why has Jackson left out these seemingly significant details? The time and place in The Lottery are purposely dubious as a result of the focuses Jackson wished to make. Anyplace, at whatever time, individuals can be convinced to be supporters, to indiscriminately hold fast to custom, and to make substitutes. Notice that in the story, is the setting ambiguous, as well as the purpose behind the lottery is misty. Individuals in the town don t know why they are doing what they are doing, thus theyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery Essay1893 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages When I think of the lottery, I think of a game basically where they choose one number and something or something gets chosen. * Setting can best be defined as: B. Thy physical location, time, and social environment in which a story takes place. In the first paragraph, the setting is described as a beautiful sunny day that is during the summer. Everything is in bloom and the grass is green. Basically, during this first paragraph, the author describes it as a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ day which shows how niceRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery Jackson 919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesuses specific details to draw attention in certain points of the story. In the beginning of The Lottery Jackson provides us with specific details about the day on which the lottery takes place. She tells us the date Ã¢â¬Å"The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer dayÃ¢â¬ (Jackson 242), the time, Ã¢â¬Å"around ten o clock; in some towns there were so many people that the lottery took two days.Ã¢â¬ (Jackson 242) and the temperature, warm. Jackson applies the same attentionRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Lottery By Edgar Allan Poe970 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesnot want their children to be reading. Sh irley just wrote books that explained life, she made people see the truth in others. She wanted to see the capacity that humans had for evil. Her stories were mainly about the reality of life and its horrific truths. Throughout her times she had received numerous awards, Edgar Allan Poe Award had been just one out of many. During this time she had also received criticism about her writing. The Lottery, The Haunting of the Hill House, and We Have Always livedRead More Shirley Jacksons The Lottery 946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJackson wrote many short stories and even some books. They are more on the dark, witchlike side, however. Kelleher explains that Jackson stated in some interviews that she practiced magic. No one really knows if she was serious while practicing witchcraft or not, but it ended up helping her write her stories http://www.literarytraveler.com/literary_articles/shirley_jackson_bennington.aspx). A major story that throws people for a loop is Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ . Th is was JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s first short story and manyRead MoreState Lotteries1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesState Lotteries: Take a Second Look From the time the Europeans first landed on the Atlantic shore, lotteries have been a part of the American society. According to Will Spink, most states are currently operating a state lottery despite its bleak history in the U.S. (Spink 1). Since 1983, North Carolina has introduced lottery bills in the legislature every year (NC Christian 15). North Carolina Governor, Mike Easley, favors a lottery for increasing revenues for education (Analysis 2). HoweverRead MoreSymbolism in The Lottery, by Shirley Jackson Essay example1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen most people play the lottery today, they think about having wealth. Generally, people who win are happy about it whether they win one dollar or a million. The lottery in our society has grown to support education and it is often worth several million dollars. Usually, the winner of the lottery gains a lot of recognition for the money they win. But what would happen if there was a small town where people held a yearly lottery in which the Ã¢â¬Å"winnerÃ¢â¬ was the member of the town who was not sacrificedRead MoreAn Unkindness of Tradition: Shirley JacksonÃ ´s Biography1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespurely based on her life as a mother and wife. Before these were published, Jackson and her family found that she had periodic depression issues. This has been largely known to be the reasoning for her controversial writing of things such as Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , which was published in The New Yorker in 1948. During this time Jackson jokingly described herself as a practicing witch (Grade Saver, 1999). This housewife-turned-witch persona caught a lot of attention and gave her a suitable career path to
Thursday, December 19, 2019
How Shakespeare Dramatically Presents Power and Authority in the Relationship Between Men and Women in Much Ado About Nothing One of the key explorations of power and authority in Ã¢â¬Å"Much Ado About NothingÃ¢â¬ is the relationship between Hero and Leonato as father and daughter. The play was written in Elizabethan England, and social attitudes of the period, together with long standing tradition, influence ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of the Ã¢â¬Å"properÃ¢â¬ relationship between father and daughter, and duty they owed to each other. In Ã¢â¬Å"Much Ado About NothingÃ¢â¬ it is very much a patriarchal society, where rank and position rule supreme and women are submissive position to men, whether fathers or husbands. This Ã¢â¬Å"maleÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, while Beatrice does publicly denounce the more stringent aspects of arranged marriage, and displays herself as a thinking character, there is an indication in the play that both Leonato and Antonio dismiss her view e.g.Ã¢â¬Å"she is too curstÃ¢â¬ This shows that older men didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion in much value, which might be the reason for HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s reluctance to offer her opinion in front of men. Beatrice championing this view of female choice, not Hero, only further serves to distinguish the positions of the two women in relation to male power. On first view, Hero is the obedient female character, while Beatrice is the abrasive character. However, this position is challenged by HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s firmness in dealing with other women Ã¢â¬Å"my cousin is a fool, and so are youÃ¢â¬ . Indeed, both men and women have much more different patterns of behaviour when outside each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company. Hero is covert, silent and publicly unassertive in front of men, because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that she will be listened to. Beatrice is the only female character who Shakespeare presents as unconstrained by this restriction. However, the only male character that seems to listen to her is Benedict, which only magnifies the uniqueness of the two characters, both as a couple and as i ndividuals, in that Beatrice is not tamed by male power, and Benedict acknowledges female wisdom. InShow MoreRelatedGp Essay Mainpoints24643 Words Ã |Ã 99 PagesCensorship d. Profit-driven Media e. Advertising f. Private life of public figures g. Celebrity as a role model h. Blame media for our problems i. Power + Responsibility of Media j. Media ethics k. New Media and Democracy 2. Science/Tech a. Science and Ethics b. Government and scientist role in science c. Rely too much on technology? d. Nuclear technology e. Genetic modification f. Right tech for wrong reasons 3. Arts/Culture a. Arts have a future in Singapore
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Encoding and Decoding Communication. Answer: Introduction Evolution has been consistent in technology and the tools and processes that have been developed on the basis of technology. Technological practices that were in existence few years back are considered as outdated and obsolete in the current times. There are many industries, sectors, organizations and businesses that have adapted and have included technology in their operations and responsibilities. Accounting and finance is one such huge industry that has made use of technology which has led to the evolution of the accounting practices and activities. The details around accounting information systems along with their specifications and attributes have been covered in the report. E-commerce and online shopping and retailing have spread rapidly and there are endless organizations in Australia that are dealing in the same line of business. One of such online retailers of groceries and other household items is Woolworths. It has its online presence in the form of a website to offer products to the consumers. Every organization has a specific organization structure that is followed and the same applies to Woolworths as well. The organizational structure in this case is cascaded in three primary levels that consist of senior level managers, middle and lower levels managers, and operational staff members (Woolworths, 2017). Organizational Structure - Problems The resources and management that is associated with any organization can lead to success and may also contribute in the failures. In case of Woolworths, there are a few issues that have been observed in terms of the organizational structure that is present with it. The resources are spread at three levels in Woolworths which include senior managers, business owners and directors at the top level followed by departmental heads and project managers at the second level and the sales team, operational workers etc. at the third and last level. There is however integration necessary in the organization to allow these resources to function as one unit which is currently missing because of the nature of the organizational structure (Henderson, 2004). Accounting information systems have been proposed at Woolworths to overcome the issues and problems and for the introduction of latest mechanisms and practices. There are various methods of acquisition of these packages which may be used such as deployment and acquiring of custom software that will have the specific requirements and features built in to the software. Woolworths can also go ahead with the implementation of commercial software in the architecture. Another effective method will be Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software and its implementation (Yang and Tamir, 2015). The ERP package will provide several benefits to the organization in terms of the level of required integration and the add-ons such as no issues with the performance and reliability of the system (Mallery, 2011). The first phase that is involved in the sales process at Woolworths is marketing and research that includes conduction of sales training and specification of the objectives and criteria. The next phase that is involved is the qualifying phase in which accounts potential is accessed and planned along with the identification of the opportunities. Agreement on the implementation is done in the proposing phase which is the third phase followed by the delivery to the customers to gain their satisfaction (Gulledge, 2002). Control Problems Frauds The sales process that has been depicted above consistent of many activities and there are sub-activities and processes that are present in each phase. Because of the involvement and existence of so many entities, there are several problems in terms of control, review, validation and monitoring that have been observed (Mohapatra and Patnaik, 2011). Many of the malevolent entities also take benefit of the situation and cause frauds and similar practices that may lead to damage and loss. These frauds are association with the execution of false practices, non-adherence to the standards, non-compliance and many such issues. Development is an ongoing process that does not have a stop or an end. Technological practices that were in existence few years back are considered as outdated and obsolete in the current times. There are many industries, sectors, organizations and businesses that have adapted and have included technology in their operations and responsibilities. Accounting and finance is one such huge industry that has made use of technology which has led to the evolution of the accounting practices and activities (Seethamraju, 2012). The impact of the developmental process in accounting industry has impacted the related entities. It has an impact on the customers as they are now able to choose from increased number of options and the way the business is conducted has also changed. There have also been impacts on the business owners and service providers as the expectations and demands have transformed from earlier times to the present day (James, 2016). Accounting activities are spread over various areas and activities such as bookkeeping, auditing, reconciling etc (Afpbb, 2016). Because of the demands of the customers and the increase in the use of services, there are more than 10,200 companies that work in the area of accounting services and practices. These organizations are composed of many resources that are engaged with the company and there are more than 131,000 resources working in these firms. It is believed and researched that the industry will witness a growth rate of 6-7% percent in the current financial year which will lead to further expansion and will also generate lot of profits (Bankwest, 2015). Market Leaders and Competitive Advantages of Accounting Packages Customers expect and demand versatility, scalability along with the functional aspects from the accounting package that is based upon automated concepts and processes. Numerous providers have tried their hands to offer best quality services to the users and there are a few that have succeeded at making a mark in the market and among the consumers. One such excellent accounting information package is MYOB. Real-time 24x7 view of business activities is offered Elevated levels of integration are provided by this package Continuity of the services is never compromised as it allows the users to access the package in offline mode There are quality and regulatory standards that are maintained by this package Users can customize the package in terms of features, themes, add-ons, colors etc (Myob, 2016). In the present times, customers expect and demand versatility, scalability along with the functional aspects from the accounting package that is based upon automated concepts and processes. Numerous providers have tried their hands to offer best quality services to the users and there are a few that have succeeded at making a mark in the market and among the consumers. One such excellent accounting information package is Intuit QucikBooks. Cost of this package is very low whereas the list of services offered is not compromised or minimized Types of the users and the version of the package has no effect on performance Information and enterprise data management offered with this package is excellent as it allows efficient storage along with latest mechanisms Users can access the package on the web platform along with mobile platforms and there is excellent compatibility that is offered Risk management and security infrastructure that is offered with this package is excellent and there are no compromises on the protection mechanisms (Advisoryhq, 2015). Features such as versatility, scalability along with the functional aspects are expected and demanded by the customers from the accounting package that is based upon automated concepts and processes. Numerous providers have tried their hands to offer best quality services to the users and there are a few that have succeeded at making a mark in the market and among the consumers. One such excellent accounting information package is Saasu. The package offers elevated levels of integration and also the issues existing with the organization can also overcome with the installation of the package. One of the distinguishing features of the package are the currency options that come along with this package and the language support and personalization. Customers expect and demand versatility, scalability along with the functional aspects from the accounting package that is based upon automated concepts and processes. Numerous providers have tried their hands to offer best quality services to the users and there are a few that have succeeded at making a mark in the market and among the consumers. One such excellent accounting information package is Reckon. Reckon is the service provider and accounting package that is being used by hundreds and millions of users and there is a lot of market data available for this one. Investments that are made by the customers remain safe as there are millions of users already associated with it. Credit management can be easily done through this package and there are also various billing activities that can be executed and calculated easily (Carey, 2015). Presently, customers expect and demand versatility, scalability along with the functional aspects from the accounting package that is based upon automated concepts and processes. Numerous providers have tried their hands to offer best quality services to the users and there are a few that have succeeded at making a mark in the market and among the consumers. One such excellent accounting information package is Xero. Time can be saved with implementation of this package as it offers very fast speed and processing. Reconciliation activities play an important role in finance which is made easy with this tool Navigation is self explanatory and the layout is also kept simple so that users may not face any difficulties in understanding Elevated collaboration with rest of the tools can be obtained (Miller, 2016). Cost of Packages Package and Cost Type Package 1: MYOB Package 2: Intuit QuickBooks Package 3: Saasu Package 4: Reckon Package 5: Xero Basic Charges as $50 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $12 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $15 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $5 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $9 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Premium Charges as $99 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $21 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Charges as $180 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Add-ons determine the cost in this case Charges as $70 for the validation period of 30 days will be applicable Cost associated with the packages (Advisoryhq, 2015) Challenges for users There are various attacks on availability that are given shape by the malicious entities that include denial of service, server impersonation, ransomware and spyware attacks. Hidden and untold costs are also associated with the packages that cause occurrence of numerous challenges for the users in terms of budget overrun and estimations (Crowder, 2016). Technical failures occur in certain cases which are due to an operational error or technical fault. Absence of support, documentation and assistance leads to presence of many risks and concerns in terms of confusions and ambiguities. Conclusion Maintaining pace with the latest technology is essential for the organizations which shall be applied in the Australian based online retail store, Woolworths as well. There are many developments that have been done in the field of accounting and finance which shall be applied in Woolworths so that latest offering is made possible for the consumers. There are scenarios in which there are issues around fraud and risks that emerge which shall be dealt with protection and related mechanisms. References Advisoryhq.com, (2015) 5 Best Small Business Accounting Software in Australia. [online] AdvisoryHQ. Available at: https://www.advisoryhq.com/articles/5-best-small-business-accounting-software-in-australia/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Afpbb, (2016) The Australian Accounting Industry. [online] Afpbb.net.au. Available at: https://www.afpbb.net.au/Resources/TheAustralianAccountingIndustry.aspx [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Bankwest, (2015) Accounting Services Industry Report. 1st ed. [ebook] Bankwest. Available at: https://www.bankwest.com.au/cs/ContentServer%3Fpagename%3DFoundation/CS/Blob/Document%26id%3D1292539844555%26ext%3D.pdf+cd=3hl=enct=clnkgl=in [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Carey, M. (2015) Cloud Accounting Overview 2015: MYOB Essentials vs Xero vs Intuit QuickBooks Online vs Reckon One - Digital First. [online] Digital First. Available at: https://www.digitalfirst.com/2015-overview-cloud-accounting-software/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Crowder, C. (2016) [online] Techin.oureverydaylife.com. Available at: https://techin.oureverydaylife.com/disadvantages-accounting-software-1965.html [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Gulledge, T. (2002). Business process management: public sector implications. Business Process Management Journal, 8(4), pp.364-376. Henderson, L. (2004). Encoding and decoding communication competencies in project management ? an exploratory study. International Journal of Project Management, 22(6), pp.469-476. James, D. (2016) 7 accounting packages for Australian small businesses compared: including MYOB, QuickBooks Online, Reckon, Xero. [online] BIT. Available at: https://www.bit.com.au/Review/344651,7-accounting-packages-for-australian-small-businesses-compared-including-myob-quickbooks-online-reckon-xero.aspx [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Mallery, M. (2011). Project Management Portal (PMP) from the University of Washington Information Technology Wiki - https://wiki.cac.washington.edu/display/pmportal/Project+Management+Portal. Technical Services Quarterly, 28(3), pp.365-367. Miller, K. (2016) Xero Review 2016 | Reviews, Ratings, Complaints, Comparisons. [online] Merchant Maverick. Available at: https://www.merchantmaverick.com/reviews/xero-review/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Mohapatra, S. and Patnaik, A. (2011). Sustainability in HRIS implementation through effective project management. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 3(1), p.78. Myob, (2016) Online Accounting Software for Businesses | MYOB. [online] Myob.com. Available at: https://www.myob.com/au/accounting-software/compare [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Ryan, E. (2016) The Evolution of Accounting Software: Past, Present and Future|. [online] Gaaaccounting.com. Available at: https://www.gaaaccounting.com/the-evolution-of-accounting-software-past-present-and-future/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Seethamraju, R. (2012). Business process management: a missing link in business education. Business Process Management Journal, 18(3), pp.532-547. Woolworths, (2017). Woolworths Supermarket - Buy Groceries Online. [online] Woolworths Online. Available at: https://www.woolworths.com.au/ [Accessed 13 Apr. 2017]. Yang, Y. and Tamir, G. (2015). Offshore software project management: mapping project success factors. International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, 7(2), p.111.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
There are three different types of Orcas species documented to date; resident, transient and offshore pods. The resident pods are separated geographically speaking and have been documented living spring, summer, and fall near the Washington coastline and have been spotted as far south as the Central California coastline. They have been spotted in the Puget Sound, Vancouver Island, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Southern Georgia Strait. While little is known about their movements; genetic data does suggest that these whales do not usually mingle with those from the other species.The Southern Resident Pod is currently on the endangered species list and is protected by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and a distinct species under the Endangered Species Act. There are 88 whales currently listed on the list for the resident whales that researchers have documented using the whales saddle patchÃ¢â¬â¢s as a signature to name and number each whale. We will write a custom essay sample on Orca Whales- Greek God of the Underworld or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page All whales have a distinct marking behind their upper dorsal fin that in reference to humans would be like their own finger print; no two are alike. The resident pod is usually led by an older and wiser female whale and they usually stay together in large pods.They swim and hunt together. The male whales on average can grow up to 24 feet in length and weigh between 7 to 10 tons. They typically live up to 30 years but can live up to 50 to 60 years. The females on average grow up to 21 feet in length and weigh between 4 to 6 tons. They typically live up to 50 years but can live up to 80 to 90 years. These averages usually vary if they are in the wild or captivity. The pods grow to large numbers as the young never leave their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s side; so there will be times when multiple generations will be swimming side by side.While resident whales prefer fish their counterpart the transient prefers marine mammals. The transient pods are not as reliable as their counterpart the resident in that they do not live in large pods and usually have a family of only ten whales or less. They do not rely on the mother figure to lead the group as the resident whales do. The transient pods diet is often geographically specific. They share their boundaries with both resident and the offshore whales. The offshore orca pods are typically smaller in size and they are less sexual dimorphism; both the male and female share the same features and appear less visually different.The resident pod and the transient pods have distinct differences between the male and female whales; not only is the male a larger mammal the male also has a top dorsal fin that can reach up to 5 to 6 feet out of the water while the female fin is not as profound. These different Orca species do share some common features as well; the orca is a highly sociable and curious mammal. They communicate with one another using clicks, whistles, and pulsed calls. Orcas prefer cool waters and rely on echolocation for navigation and discriminating between prey and other surrounding objects.Each species may have their own dialect as people do from different parts of the world. All three pod species also can share some of the same threats that are endangering their species all together. The Orca has no one to fear except for the human being; there is not an animal in the ocean that they fear. The threats that come can be from contaminants in the water, to depletion of their prey, a ship collision or oil spills. Whales can be threatened by noise, industry and even military activities. There is also the possibility of being caught in a fishermanÃ¢â¬â¢s line.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Report on Usha Martin Essay ON SALES PROCEDURES LOGISTICS PREPARED FOR AND PRESENTED TO (WIRE WIRE ROPE SPECIALITY DIVISION, RANCHI) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. ARUN KUMAR DEY (Assistant Manager) (Sales Co-ordination) SUBMITTED BY NIKHIL KIRAN BBA, BIT MESRA, RANCHI. (2008-11) ANKIT KHANDELWAL BBA, BIT MESRA, RANCHI. (2008-11) VIKASH KUMAR DUBEY BBA, BIT MESRA, RANCHI. (2008- 11) DECLARATION CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work presented in the project entitled Ã¢â¬Å"SALES PROCEDURES AND LOGISTICS OF USHA MARTINÃ¢â¬ in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of Birla Institute Of Technology Mesra,Ranchi is an authentic work carried out under my supervision and guidance . To the best knowledge, The content of this project does not form a basis for the award of any previous degree to any one else. (A. R. SRIVASTAV) Dept Of management Birla Institute Of Technology Lalpur Extension Centre Ranchi CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL The foregoing project entitled Ã¢â¬Å"SALES PROCEDURES LOGISTICS OF USHA MARTIN LTD. Ã¢â¬ Is hereby approved as a credible study of research topic and has been presented in satisfactory manner to warrant its acceptance as perquisite to the degree for which it has been submitted. It is understood that by this approval, the undersigned do not necessarily endorse any conclusion drawn or opinion expressed therein, but approve the thesis for the purpose for which it is submitted. Intenal Examiner External Examiner Head Of The Department We will write a custom essay sample on Report on Usha Martin specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Report on Usha Martin specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Report on Usha Martin specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Acknowledgement The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of the work would be incomplete unless I mention the people, as an expression of gratitude, who made it possible and whose constant guidance and encouragement served as a beacon of light and crowned my efforts with success. This report would have been impossible but for the support and guidance that we received from various people at different stages of the project. Our sincere thanks to MR. A. R. SRIVASTAV whose excellent guidance, encouragement and patience has made possible the successful completion of this project. Last but not the least we extend my sincere thanks to the entire team for providing me their time and active co-operation and all who have helped me directly or indirectly in this project. CONTENTS SI. No. | Description| | Industry and Company Profile| | | | a) Vision| | b) A brief History | | c) Other Particulars | | d) Competitors | | The Project Profile| 1| | 2| Sales procedure and System| 3| Sales procedure and form| 4| Quality analysis Testing| 5| Dispatch | | The Project-Background Methodology| 1| Research Topic| 2| Research Objective| | Research design | 4| Information Requirement| 5| Sampling | 6| Limitations| | Analysis and Recommendation| 1| Logistics | 2| Analysis of process involved in loading cycle | 3| Findings / Suggestions| 4| Analysis of Monthly Dispatch of wire and rope | 5| Findings / Suggestions | 6| Swot Analysis for UML| | Conclusion| | BIBLIOGRAPHY| | | VISION In our chosen business, we shall retain market leadership in India and shall be globally competitive through customer orientation and excellence in quality, innovation and technology. Looking Back A Brief History 960 The Company was incorporated as Usha Martin Black (Wire Ropes) limited having its wire rope plant at Ranchi. The name was changed to Usha Martin Black Ltd. in 1979 and further changed to Usha Martin Industries Ltd. (UMIL) in 1983. 1962 Ã¢â¬âthe production was started and the turnover that year was 996 MT and Rs. 22. 34 lakhs respectively. 1965 UMIL promoted Usha Ismal Ltd. (UIL) in collaboration with CCL Systems Ltd of UK for the manufacture of fittings and accessories, equipment for pre-stressed concrete system, wire ropes and wire ropes splicing equipment at Ranchi. UIL merged with UMIL in 1990 and became a division of the company 1969-promoted Usha Brecko Ltd. To design, construct and erect Arial ropeway. 1971 UMIL promoted Usha Alloy Steels Limited (UASL) for the manufacture of billets at Jamshedpur. UASL merged with UMIL in 1988. 1975 UASL acquired an ongoing rolling mill at Agra. 1975 UMIL set up its Machinery Division at Bangalore for the manufacture of Wire Drawing and allied machines in technical collaboration with Marshall Richards Barcro Limited (MRB) of UK. 1979 In order to obtain steady supply of wire rods for its wire rope plant, UASL set up a Wire Rod Rolling Mill at Jamshedpur. 980-Promote Usha Siam steel industry Ltd. in Thailand to manufacturing wire, wire rope , and auto control cables. 1986-Promote Usha Beltrone Ltd. To manufacture Jelly filled. 1987 UMIL, along with Bihar State Electronics Development Corporation, promoted Usha Beltron Ltd. (UBL) in collaboration with AEG KABEL of Germany for the manufacture of Jelly Fill ed Telephone Cables. 1993-Promoted Usha Martin Pvt. Ltd. a joint venture, to provide cellular, paging and Telecom services. 1994-Setup software division to provide IT solutions for communication application. Setup Usha Martin Europe Ltd. a distribution center at Glasgow, U. K. 1996-Promoted summit Usha Martin Finance Ltd. a joint venture to proved financial services. 1997 UMIL merged with UBL i. e. 1st October 1997. 1998-Setup Usha Martin amerces inc. , distribution center in Houston. Setup UMLcor, South Africa, a manufacture unit and distribution center in Johannesburg. 2000 Acquisition of specialty wire rope manufacturing plant in UK Ã¢â¬Å"BruntonShawÃ¢â¬ . Commissioning of 25 MW thermal power plants for captive consumption. 2001 Ã¢â¬â Commissioning of 2nd SMS to enhance capacity and produce quality specialty steel. 2003 Usha Beltron Ltd Changed its name to Ã¢â¬Å"Usha Martin Limited (UML). UML created Fine Cord Plasticated coated Fine wires, household wire, Polymer coated wire, Fine Ropes Bright Bars manufacturing facilities in Tatisilwai- Ranchi. 2004-The company successful commissioned DRI and WHRB power plant at its steel division in Jamshedpur. 2005-The company signs an MOU with Joh. Pengg for manufacturing of the specialty oil tempered spring steel wire. Commences iron ore mines successfully. Railway siding commenced. 2006-Pursuant to B. T. A. the company acquired the business of Usha construction steel ltd. , Rolling mill at Agra w. e. f. 1st-dec- 2006 as a part of the steel segment. 007- Peng Usha Martin collaborates with Jo-Peng, Austria in 2007 for Special Wire. 2008-. In this year Usha Martin Limited has awarded for excellence in consistent TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) in 2008 by Japan Institute of plant maintenance (JIPM), and CII (Confederation of Indian Industries) 2009- In this year company sets some more plants inside the Tatisilwai wire and wire rope plant and the construction and upgradation is continued, like 20MW power plant is under construction which will increase the monthly production of the unit. A 3000 tn capacity LRPC plant was established in this year at Tatisilwai plant. The company acquired Netherland based distribution and Rigging Company De Ruiter Stackable B. V. Successfull commissioning of wire rope plant at Houston, America. Other Particulars IN USHA MARTIN L. T. D Location Chotanagpur Plateau Plant Area112 Acres Nearest TownRanchi (13 Km) Nearest Railway StationTatisilwai (1 Km) Nearest Airport Ranchi (17 Km) Nearest HighwayN H-33 (8 Km) Nearest PortKolkata (412 km) PowerContracted demand 8000 KVA Source-JSEB Water2400-3200 m3/day SourcesSubernekha River . Competitors for Usha Martin Ltd. GLOBAL COMPETITORS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS COMPANYCOUNTRY Kiss wireKorea British RopeU. K. Haggier randSouth Africa FedgerSwitzerland Austria droughtAustria CasarGermany BridonGermany DietzGermany John ShawU. K. RedaelliItaly SFESpain TeufelbergerAustria PfeifferSwitzerland DOMESTIC COMPETITORS IN INDIA South India wireKerela Bombay Wire RopesMaharashtra Bharat Wires Ropes Maharashtra INTRODUCTION ON SALES PROFILE Sales Co-ordination Department occupies a strategic position in USHA MARTIN LTD. It spreads the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to supply customer with ever increasing qualitative of product at profitable price. Good products at competitive price are not enough. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is affected by the dealings and association of the sales Co-ordination department with customer and public, sales Co-ordination department with other department with other department influence the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation with public. So each and every department is able to maintain a healthy relationship with sales department. QUALITY OBJECTIVES OF SALES CO-ORDINATION DEPARTMENT VISION: QUALITY WORK WITH LOWEST COST SALES PROCEDURE FLOW CHART ENQUIRY: First of all enquiry is made about the product required i. e. whether the company has required product of required size, length, weight, rate, delivery etc. QUOTATION: In Quotation Company gives detail information on certain matter to the customers. The quotation includes: > Product variance > Rate > Lead time > Delivery > Making time PURCHASE ORDER: Purchase order gives the complete of the product demanded by the customer. Purchase order is packed to the Head office of the company. Along with the covering letter, the Purchase order is forwarded to the planning Department of the company and accordingly sales order is prepared. It contains following information: * Name of the customer with address. * Place, the products are to be delivered (consignee). * Reference no. hich is used as order number by the company. * Name of the product. * Size of the product. * Construction of the product. * Coating and core of the product. * Rate/price of the product. * Quantity of the product. * Remark. SALES ORDER: Sales order is prepared in the planning department with the help the existing system (BAAN). It contains entire information as given in the p urchase order. Sales order is send to branch office, Kolkata marketing, quality assurance, sales co-ordination Department with the help of BAAN. BAAN is an intra organizational network connected with the computer and is automatically updated. SALES ORDER CONTAINS: * Customer address with code. * Order acceptance no. * CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s order no. * Quotation. * Order no. * Date. * Branch Name. * Consignee. * Taxes Duties. * Postal address. * Other expenses. (Insurance, octroi, advance, commission) * Banker. * Payment terms. PRIME STOCK Prime stock is the MIS of finished goods. It is prepared by production department. It provides the clear picture of what products have been produced and their composition and thus it facilitates in analyzing. Prime stock report is sent to sales co-ordination department. It provides the following details: Sales order. * Project lot. * Length of the product. * Weight of the product * Reel used for packing and its weight. * Type, size construction of the product. * Coating lay, tensile. * Lubricant used in the product. * Closing sheet date status of the product. * Rate and value of the products. * Information regarding party code, consignee Destination. * Inspection and age of the product. IMPORTANCE: a) Prime stock assists sales co-ordination department to take the decision in b) What ratio dispatch will be made. c) It helps in making the dispatch advice or rough challan no. ) It helps in knowing the detail specification of the products to be dispatched. PRODUCTION PLAN After the sales order has been made, the company plans about the raw materials to be purchased, the raw materials in stock, container requirement, delivery time etc. It contains the following plan: * Monthly production plan. * Quantity wise production plan. * Order wise production plan. * Raw material wise production plan. * Number of Man power needed. * Nos. of Reels, Bobbins required. * Machine planning. PRODUCTION: After production plan the actual production takes place in the production department. The following production process is followed: Rod Ironing Pickling Denting Wire Mill (rod is drawn to make wire) ROD WIRE STRAND ROPE WIRE * Galvanized (zinc or lead) * Black Rope: Construction: * 6/36 i. e. it contains 6 strands one strand contain 36 wires. There are many Other constructions like 1/7, 6/7 , 6/26, 8/36 , 6/ 19 etc. * It may be G/S (Galvanize Steel) , B/S (Black Steel), G/F (Galvanize Fibre coat) etc. Q A Testing: The product produced is send to the QA department and when QA passes it certificate of test is released and then closing stock is ascertained. DISPATCH: For dispatch of goods following planning is done: * Advance dispatch plan * Container requirement. * Container Fumigation (Methyl bromide). * Loading . . . . . . . . LOGISTICS IN USHA MARTIN LIMITED The major elements of market logistics in UML are: * Order Processing * Ware Housing * Inventory * Transportation * Information Monitoring * GPS (Global Positioning System) . The Transportation System Introducti on The transportation system is the physical link connecting a company customers, raw materials suppliers , pants ,warehouses and channel members the fixed point in a logistics supply chain. The fixed points in the logistic system are where some activity temporarily halts the flow of goods in the logistics pipeline. The Role of Transportation In Logistics. Bridge over buyer-seller gap: Conceptually, a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s logistics supply chain is a series of fixed points where the goods come to rest and transportation links. The transportation link permits good to flow between the various fixed points and bridges the buyer-seller gap. Value added: Transportation is the physical thread connecting the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s geographically dispersed operation. More specifically, transportation added value to the company by creating time and place utility; the value added is the physical movement of goods to the place desired and at the time desired. Global impact: As supply chain becomes increasingly in our global economy, the transportation function is connecting buyers and sellers that may be tens of thousands of miles apart. The Transportation Selection Decision The carrier selection decision is a specialized purchasing process whereby a film purchases the service a carrier to provide the necessary link among logistics facilities. It must also consider the other costs associated with how the transport methodÃ¢â¬â¢s services affected the facility operation. The transit time, the greater the inventory level the company requires to protect against stock outs until the next shipment arrives. Modal choice: Carrier selection is a twofold process. First the firm selects a transportation mode. The choice includes the basic mode of rail, water, trucks, air, and pipeline. In addition, intermodal transportation, which used two or more modes to provide services over a given traffic lane, is available. The most common forms of intermodal transportation include rail-truck (piggyback), truck Ã¢â¬â air and rail water. Specific carrier choice: the second step in the decision is to select a specific carrier from within the chosen mode or intermodal form. The specific carrier selection requires the firm to choose the legal carrier type: common, regulated, contract, exempt or private. , . MODE OF LOGOSTICS DEPARTMENTS Intermodal Transportation Intermodal transport services refer to the use of two or more carriers of different modes in the through movement of a shipment. Piggyback Piggyback is a specialized from in which rail and motor transport coordinate. In piggyback, the carrier places the motor carrier trailer on a rail flatcar, which moves the trailer by rail for long distance. A motor carrier combines the long- haul, low-cost advantage of rail with the accessibility of motor. Rail Truck Pipeline Water Air . . . TRANSPORTATION IN USHA MARTIN LIMITED The process adopted in UML for transportation under logistics are :- 1. ) Basic Mode Roadways 2. ) Specific type a) By Truck b) By trailer ) By container Specific Type Trailer Container Truck Mainly for Export 10 Wheeler 6 Wheeler Wheeler Diff. trailer with diff. capacity 30 ton 15 ton Open top Close on Fig- Flow chart of specific type of transportation TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT: UML is delivering the outgoing finished goods to the domestic customer through roadways and railways. Roadways cover the maximum delivery to the customers. But for the international customers UML is sending the finished goods through waterways (i. e. shipping). As we know that the water is the one of the cheapest means of transportation. Some times UML is meeting the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s need through airways, (the cost is to be paid by customers) when there is a quick delivery needed. Fig. Overall Process of Transportation In Usha Martin Limited (From sales Department) Process involve in Loading Cycle 1. ) Main gate security :- The truck / trailer reports to the main gate. The security officer inspects the vehicle no. , transport name, driverÃ¢â¬â¢s name and license no. the owner book and in time of the trucks. 2. ) Weigh bridge :- Here trucks are weighted before loading the material and a slip is given to the driver of tare weight. 3. Transporter reports to the sales officer :- The transporter reports to the department after the arrival of trucks inside the factory premises so as to prepare the loading advice. 4. ) Trucks reports to dispatch area :- After reporting to the main gate security and weight- machine the truck reports to the dispatch area to inform the department of its arrival. 5. ) Sales release the loadi ng advice :- Soon after the transport reports, the department releases the loading advice so that the loading process starts. 6. ) Trucks are loaded as per the loading advice :- The dispatch section segregated material as per loading advice memo. The materials are loaded in such a way that the packing does not damaged during loading and in transit. 7. ) Loaded truck reports to weight bridge :- After loading the trucks again reports to the weight machine. Here again a ship of grand weight and net weight is given to the driver. 8. ) Sales releases the dispatch documents :- The sale department releases the dispatch documents that consist of transporter note or receipt, excise / custom gate pass, packing list, certification of test, road permit that are attached to the invoice before handling over the documents to the transporter 9. ) Main gate security :- The second interactions clears or checks the party name and address, material description, quantity, invoice of the loaded truck and keep record of out time the loaded trucks. Fig. Flow of Transportation within Factory Premises (For Finished Goods) Distribution Network of UML, Ranchi EXPORTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS BY UML Works Usha Martin Limited Ranchi Kolkata PortHaldia Port Mumbai Port Usha Martin, AmericaUsha Martin, Scandinavia Mid East Countries Usha Martin, Europe, UKUMLCOR, Africa To Different Customer Fig. Process of Export rope dispatch used by Usha Martin Limited (By sales Department) ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION USHA MARTIN INDUSTRIES assess the logistic function, which help the raw material which is purchased and then it is planned accordingly for the production and when the production is finished good is kept in the stock godown from there it is despatched according to the demand of the customer through the efficient distribution channels to the destination or warehouse accordingly. From Purchase Department:- Purchase department deals with the purchase of raw materials like wire rod and lubricants (from Jamshedpur), chemicals from (Mumbai) like, HCL Borax, etc. Propane gas (from GILO, Zinc lead (from Kolkata. ) In this department relevant information are incorporated in the purchase orders so that product supplied by the sub-contractors, meet desired quality requirements. The product is reviewed and approved by management representative and issued by head of quality system. The responsibility of implementing and maintaining the procedural steps of this procedure rests with in charge of purchase department. From planning Department:- Planning Department deals with the allocation of work according to product Planning Department review the purchase order. After receiving it becomes the sales order. It includes all the necessary details regarding product and also the address of the consignee. On the basis of this a W. P. S. (Work Plan Schedule) is prepared Plan horizon of UML is 15 days W. P. S. includes schedule of each and every day. That is from the day despatching of the product. Something advance planning is made for the products, which are always in, demands (for e. g. fishing rope). From production department:- The main manufacturing plants that U. M. I. contains are wire, strand and rope. Its wires and ropes are used for various purposes. For e. . fishing rope, engineering ropes etc. U. M. I. is specialists of L. C. W. R. ropes, which is mainly used, in mining industries U. M. I. ropes have to go through a tensile strength test before DESPATCHING. Research Topic Before we start our research, it is necessary to have at least some idea of what to do? This is probably the most difficult and yet the most important component of the research project. Without being clear about what we are going to research it is difficult to plan how to research? Therefore formulating and clarifying the research topic is the starting point of any research project. Taking into account the above matter, the research topic is formulated as such: Ã¢â¬Å"SALES PROCEDURES LOGOSTICSÃ¢â¬ Research Objective The research may begin with a general focus as a base from which to right a set of research objective. Objective is more generally acceptable as evidence of the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s clear sense of purpose and direction. A research objective requires more rigorous thinking which derives from the use of more formal language. Therefore the broad objective of the study is : * To analyses the dispatch of wire rope. * Control of loading cycle time. To obtain the required knowledge of the subject. * To study the existing Sales procedures Logistics of UML. * To find out the related problem in its system and recommend solution as per the findings. * To analyse the working function of the sales dept. or systems to know how well the manpower is utilized. * To study the distribution network. * To find out the lacunae in the functioning of the logistic dep artment. * To find out whether the present distribution network need some changes. * To study the consumers behaviour ; to find out which area needs improvement. To suggest corrective measures to tighten the loose threads in the area of study Sub-objective: These would be related to Sales Procedure and Logistics which contains the study of transportation. It would reveal: * Whether the sales procedure and Logistics are properly followed by UML or not. * If not, then where the improvement is required. * Is the existing system sufficient with some modifications and improvement or does it needÃ¢â¬â¢s to be changed to do the products well in the market and to increase the sales volume. Altogether the hypothesis / sub-objectives developed are: To analyze the performance of the approved transporter. * To reduce the loading cycle time. * To find out the fluctuation of transportation rates. * To find out the time in documentation while releasing the loaded truck. * To upgrade the existing system concerning flow of material related to the transportation. * To analyze the activity of dispatch section insuring loading and dispatch of correct material so that these are delivered at customerÃ¢â¬â¢s end in good condition. Research design: A research design is simply a frame work or plan for a study that guides the collection and analysis of data. It is a blue print that is followed in completing study the main purpose of the study is to maintain flexibility and to discover ideas and insights not previously recognized therefore the study has been conducted in two phases. * Exploratory study * Conclusive study Exploratory study: This research is often conducted because the problem has not been clearly defined as yet. It allows the researcher to familiarize himself with the problem or concept to be studied. It helps to determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It has been aimed to study the basic know how about the Usha Martine Ltd. This has been done through making an introductory visit to all the functioning department of the company specially the sales co-ordination department. Conclusive study: This research is meant to provide information that is useful in reaching conclusions or decision making. The research relies on both the secondary data and the primary data. It has been conducted through interacting with various people of sales co-ordination, expertise, interviews, observations, data collection, office record, questionnaires etc. Information Requirement In a broader sense we can say that the two types of data available to a research are Primary data and Secondary data. Primary data are generated when a particular problem at hand is investigated by the researcher employing mail, questionnaire, telephone surveys, personal interview, observation, experiment. The primary data which were required for the research and to get the information, done through the help of survey. The survey thus conducted, applying the various tools, to get the information . These are done though I. Observation. II. Questionnaire. III. Interview. The process by which the trucks are loaded and in accordance the data which were collected, is done through the help of observation, questionnaire, and personal interview let the researcher to know about the loading cycle time, fluctuation in transportation rate, loading and dispatch of correct material, documentation process, transporter view , employee ideas etc. Secondary data includes those data which are collected for some earlier research work and are applicable in the study, the researcher has presently undertaken. Secondary data include both quantitative and qualitative data, and they can be used in both exploratory research and conclusive research . There are variety of classification for secondary data. It may be documentary data, survey based data and those compiled from multiple sources. Documentary secondary data include written document of the organization. These records or the document include:- 1. Operating procedure of sales coordination department that are: a) Dispatch of wire. b) Packing of wire. c) Marking of wire. d) Dispatch of rope. e) Packing of rope or reel for Domestic / Export ) Packing of rope in coil for Domestic / Export. g) Calculation of the sub Contractor / Transporter performance rating. h) Approval of transporter. i) Handling storage and disposal of customer returned material. 2. Monthly dispatch figure of finished product. 3. Daily dispatch figure of each product. 4. Organization websites. 5. Reports of committees. 6. Annual reports of the company. 7. Book. 8. Inter net. 9. Domestic wise transportation rate per metric ton. 10. Dispatch documents consisting Invoice, Rough challan, Transporter consignment note, Guarantee certificate, Certificate for test, Road permit etc. 1. Placement and dispatch of containers and trucks. Sampling Generally when field studies are undertaken in practical life , consideration of time and cost need to a selection for the researcher and that is selection of few items. Sample Technique The items which are selected is called sample and the process which involves in selecting the sample is called sample technique. In this research, technique which is used for the collection of data is judgmental sampling. Before starting rational judgment is taken and the sample should be the representative of the entire transportation under logistics. Sample Size This refers to the no. of items to be selected. It should be neither excessively large nor too small, it should be optimum. The optimum sample is one which fulfills the requirement of efficiency, representatives, reliability and flexibility. The samples which are selected for the information collection are:- a) Monthly dispatch figure of last three years. b) Times taken by each truck for loading and also for the container were in number of five. c) Single truck / container each day for 5 days. d) Destination wise rates of transport for last three years. e) Performance rating of last quarter, ending of financial year 07 . Limitations The primary limitation of the project was the duration of one months that was set to complete the assignment. Lost of data had to be collected and analyzed for collecting the data regarding transportation. Many existing transporter could not interviewed. The secondary limitation was regarding to the secondary data collected from the internal sources of the company about the approved transporters, their products, loading cycle etc. because there was huge work pressure on managers as well as on supervisor Self visiting was not allowed by the company for collecting data. The company guide does have less time to spend with us because of busy schedule of sales-coordination department. Chart of time taken by each truck Findings From the entire study on total loading cycle time, it is observed that the total time taken by the trailer (including taking the empty container) and truck exceed the normal time frame. The normal time taken is more than 5 to 6 hrs. this variation ranges from 5 hrs to 22 hrs. There are more areas that have taken in to consideration which create delay in delivery. These are as follows:- * Late dispatch of documents led to late delivery of loaded trucks. The dispatch documents generally release after 4Ã¢â¬â¢o clock in the second half of the day and therefore even the trucks are fully loaded it waits for the document to get, before living the factory. * As per late preparation ofÃ¢â¬â¢ certificate of test Ã¢â¬Ëby Quality assurance department the entire documentation process moves slow ; make delay. * The sample size taken to calculate the total loading cycle time of fine trucks / container shows that not a single vehicle is loaded , within a time period of five to six hrs. Delay in arrival or in time placement of trucks or trailers. * The way which involves the loading cycle is so complicated that even the transporter wants to arrive quickly, it takes enough time. * The trucks generally wait in queues because the trucks which have arrived earlier are there for loading the material / goods at loading point. * As soon as the truck reports to the factory the two way process starts, the one by the transporter and the other by truck driver. Transporter reports to the sales office and the truck to security then weigh bridge and so on. UML uses only a single mode of transportation and that is the road ways. * Trucks are loaded as per loading advice memo. Time varies in loading different types of material. For domestic supply the loading of material takes less time but for the export it takes enough time. Time also varies in loading the material which generally are product wise, size wise, and order wise. * On few occasion printing and painting of reels is done after placement of lorry. The loading cycle time in the whole process is greater and it is a lengthy procedure this time needs to be reduced. Suggestion / Recommendation While undergoing the study various flaws regarding documentation process, loading point, dispatch area, transportation was observed. During this period of our study various pit falls and problems in existing system we found ,so to provide UML a be
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Plato's Ring Of Gyges Essays - Platonism, Ancient Greek Philosophers Plato's Ring Of Gyges The Ring of Gyges The story of the Ring of Gyges is an excerpt from book two of Plato's The Republic, in which Glaucon disagrees with Socrates and insists that people act moral because they lack the power to behave otherwise. In an effort to support his claim, Glaucon recites the tale of Gyges. In this paper, I will include a brief history of Plato, a description of the Ring of Gyges, and discuss how the story may affect our present lives. Plato was born in 429 B.C. in Athens, Greece, to Ariston and Perictione. Plato's real name was Aristocles, and 'Plato' (meaning 'the broad') was a nickname given either from the width of his shoulders, or from the size of his forehead. When Plato was a young man he became a disciple of Socrates, learning the value of reason and philosophy. Plato was in military service from 409 B.C. to 404 B.C., but at this time he wanted to pursue politics rather than a military career. At the end of the war he joined the Oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants, but their violent acts resulted in Plato leaving quickly. In 403 B.C. a restoration of democracy in Athens began, and Plato had great hopes of reentering politics. However, the execution of Socrates in 399 B.C. had an immense effect on Plato and he decided on having nothing further to do with politics in Athens. Plato left Athens after Socrates had been executed and traveled in Egypt, Sicily, and Italy. Upon his return to Athens, in about 387 B.C., Plato founded the Academy, an institution devoted to research and instruction in philosophy and science. Plato was disappointed with the ethics of those in public office (JOC 1). The Academy's primary goal was to educate citizens for statesmanship (Sahakian 35). Plato presided over his Academy in Athens until his death in 347 B.C. (JOC 1). The Ring of Gyges is a story written by Plato in an attempt to force the reader to evaluate his or her own sense of morality. In this story, Gyges worked as a shepherd for the king of Lydia. An earthquake opened up the ground where Gyges' flock was feeding. Inside this opening lay a bronze horse with doors. Inside these doors was a dead body with a golden ring. Gyges pulled the ring from the dead and climbed from the hole. He later joined his fellow shepherds to make a regular report to the king about his sheep. As he sat and toyed with his ring, Gyges noticed that when he turned the setting around on his finger he became invisible to all. He then became a messenger from the shepherds to the court; Gyges took his pleasure and seduced the queen. He later conspired with queen and killed the king, taking control of Lydia. After the story is told, Glaucon asks Socrates to imagine that two magic rings exist. A just individual has one ring, and an unjust person holds the other. Glaucon argues that no man could resist the temptation of taking what is not his, therefore the actions of the just would be as the actions of the unjust. This may affirm to be proof that a man is good, not willingly, but of necessity. If self-indulgence can be practiced without fear of punishment, then the tendency for being unjust will prevail (Jowett 257). What would one do if one possessed a magic ring? One could argue that there is a resemblance between Gyges and President Clinton. The President is a very skillful politician, a master of evasive talk. Plato states, A man who uses his power in the endless pursuit of the delights of the flesh possess the soul of a tyrant. Plato also understood that democracy is susceptible to a certain form of tyranny: the rule of a generous government, catering to the public's needs and wants in exchange for their freedom. Could one associate Plato's idea of a tyrant with the actions of President Clinton? The President has squeezed out of every tight spot in which he has landed. Clinton's cleverness may lead him to think he possesses a Gyges' ring of invincibility. He can allow his passions and sensual desires
Thursday, November 21, 2019
What role does smoking prevention play in adolescence before adulthood and addiction to smoking - Research Paper Example A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions to increase their effectiveness with this population. Proposing of this study was to examine if the majority of adolescents believed that smokers agreed and felt that smoking was addictive and may cause death. All seemed of the opinion that this was for most people who are smoking. When nailing down the optimism viewpoint that adolescents were equally of the opinion that they would not die from smoking. Nonsmokers were of the opinion they would die from smoking. Overwhelming, the adolescents who did not smoke thought that the people who smoked for 30 to 40 years would die from smoking. Most of the people questioned believed they could smoke for a certain number of years and quit. Adolescents agree that smoking was addictive. What role does smoking prevention play in adolescence before adulthood and addic tion to smoking? 1. Rationale Preventing smoking and to help adolescents quit smoking have been met with limited success. This is a preventable disease. Smoking is the number one cause of death in the United States. The purpose of the study was to show that there remains a great deal of optimism when visiting with adolescences while they filled questionnaires (Apodaca, 2003). Smokers are more optimistic about not dying from smoking behaviors than non-smokers. The hypothesis would state, does motivational interviewing (MI) tailoring future MI interventions to increase their effectiveness with this adolescence population in the role of smoking prevention. In the health care field, nurses are much in demand. Nurses compared to doctors are about four to one. Nurses continue to contribute to critical inpatient care. They are in demand in outpatient care, central to palliative, hospice, home, and long-term institutions (AMA, 2009). The general purpose of nursing is to deliver excellent ca re to each patient through the management of resources and to maintain a professional work environment. The purpose of nursing is also to maintain a professional work environment that ensures the nursing association is competent and has a high satisfaction rate. This plays right into the necessity that nurses will experience diseases from smoking and that smoking prevention plays an important role to adolescence behavior (AMA, 2009). Prevention of illness and promotion of health always have been important to the nursing profession. A recent Gallop Organization reported that Americans rate nurses at the top of that professional list (Gallop, 2009). Florence Nightingale saw as far back as 1859 that nursing consisted of those activities that put the patient in the best condition that nature can act upon that patient. The added goal of today can be to restore the patient's independence. Nurse's work has much to do with immunization, education, environmental safety and disease screening (White, 2010). Our hypothesis is nurses can assist with motivational interviewing (MI) tailoring future MI interventions in to increase their effectiveness with this adolescence population in the role of smoking prevention. Because the nursing organization must already perform five functions, it makes sense that a nurse would help with this provision of excellent adolescent patient care. Nursing also provides the bulk of patient and family education and much of the community health education. Therefore, motivational interviewing (MI) could be the first step in any intervention of the adolescence population in a brief smoking intervention in a hospital setting which adolescents
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Leadership - Case Study Example The university in so doing will require the stakeholders to show acceptance and positive regard towards the expected change. They can attain this issue through being polite and considerate instead of being arrogant when criticizing the change efforts. All the stakeholders or interested individuals as well as the subordinates should be treated with respect as individual. When A.F will be required to provide his explanation for the new selection, he will need to be patient and helpful when giving instructions and explanations (Tsui, Zhang, Wang, Xin, & Wu, 2006). The university needs to express their confidence in A.F to be able to make a good selection that will be used to in the future to help in achieving the course objectives. For A.F to be able to make a good choice of book that everyone will support, he will need to involve all the staff and everyone important to his selection process. He will also need to delegate responsibilities to people, a committee like, to help in making section decision. He will also need to provide relevant information and materials needed by the team t make a good selection. A.F will also need, among other efforts, to let the team develop confidence in him, encourage and support group initiatives as well as recognizing important contribututions from the team members. When it is established that student evaluation of the course that was updated for the new textbook are revealing extremely poor student satisfaction, there are various steps that need to be taken in order to deal with the situation. The first step to deal with it will be to increase the textbook supplies in case the dissatisfaction is because of the shortage in supply of the books. At the same time, if the cause of dissatisfaction is that the textbook is user unfriendly, experienced personnel should be added to help the students with how to go about reading the book (Turnley & Bolino, 2001). Similarly, a
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Incest of the prime minister in China Essay Cecilia Leung, 30, the lawyer who has won the case about The Incest of the prime minister in China. She lives in Hong Kong with her husband, Jerry, who is a policeman and their four-year old son Brandon. I dont like mornings ; I think that I even hate them, so I need to wake up by Jerry every single morning otherwise, I will sleep late until 1 oclock. Once I felt that I got to wake up, I will go to the bathroom, turn on the television inside it and have a nice bath. I usually stay in the toilet until the morning news has finished. Then I will go to prepared breakfast, I think that it is very important to have a good breakfast as it is the start of the day so I always try to do my best. However, my best do not satisfied my family as most of the time; Jerry will just have toast or milk while Brandon will ask for McDonald if they know that I have cook breakfast for them. So most of the time, I will just stay away from the kitchen. And leave it for my housekeeper to do it. I usually wake Brandon up when breakfast is ready. I find that being a mum is not an easy job especially when Brandon is about two months old, he cry all day and night, I cant imagine what I would do if my mum did not help me look after Brandon for the first two year after he is born, as Jerry and me have never look after a baby before that. Luckily, as time go on, things are getting better. Now I and jerry both enjoy watching our baby son growing up. After breakfast, I usually sit down on the table, planning what to do for the whole day. After that, it is time for Jerry to go to work. Me and Brandon will walk to the car park with Jerry, walk back to our house when he has left. I then leave Brandon with my housekeeper, telling her what to do for the rest of the day while I am working and set off to work. My job is like a non- stop clock as I am busy all the time. I am working in a big office with 40 people in it. I enjoy being a lawyer as I think that it is a shame to see people going into jail if they havent do things wrong as it may simply be just a mistake and my job can help to sort these silly mistakes. Thats why I love this job as it is like a challenge every time when I get a new case and my aim for the challenge each time is to win. However, I find out things dont always happen as what I wish as I have seen so many client who havent did any thing wrong but still end up in the jail or even death which make me get really crossed but I always try to do my best to help them and find out about the truth. Rumour which is created by the magazine is something that really makes me get on my nerve. Since I got famous with the incest case, I start to appear in the magazine! I get really happy when I first knew that I was on a magazine article. As soon as I read it, I screamed! They said I refused to do certain jobs because they didnt pay me enough money. Although it is true that I refuse to do a few jobs but it is because those clients who I refused to work for have all commit that they had did something wrong but they just want to use money to make them escape from the punishment. I find that absolutely ridiculous so I refused the job. The imagination of the journalist is so good that they can create those funny stories. So how do I cope with my stress? When I feel really stressful from my work I play with Brandon when I get back home or do Tai Ji. Through the movement, it helps me to stretch out my stress. Before I do this, one thing I must do is to check if the balcony door is lock properly otherwise Brandon will come and join me and I will never be able to continue. Jerry is generally back to home by 8 then we will drive to my parent house to have supper or sometimes I will be tempted to cook for them but Jerry will usually stop disaster from happening. I enjoy being with my family as it makes me feel good when I am with them as I am a person who believe that family is the most important part for my life I start to put Brandon into bed at about 10 oclock; I always read stories to him to help him go to sleep. Then it is the time for me and Jerry, we sit in the balcony, admire the view from the window and talk about our day or sometimes we will watch television together. Before I go to sleep, I try to finish off doing my work then I have my eight hour sleep which is the best part of my day.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Performance Analysis of One Dimension FDTD Code Performance analysis of One dimension FDTD code using Parallel Processing Technique P. GUNAPANDIAN, M.R.SUBASREE, B. MANIMEGALAI Abstract The requirement of longer processing time and larger memory makes FDTD method impractical for many cases. Implementation of parallel processing in FDTD method is proposed in this paper. The implementation depends mainly on computer architecture and programming libraries under different operating systems. In this paper a several performance tests of a one dimension FDTD code is tested in different platforms. The results shows that Parallel processing shows a linear decrease in time and larger data handling which makes it as a right platform for complex structures. Keywords:Ã FDTD, parallel processing, computer architecture, operating system, serial processing. Introduction Computational ability has advanced in the recent few decades. One of the most common methods to solve Maxwells equations on arbitrary configurations of materials and field sources is the Finite Differences on Time Domain (FDTD) . There exist a number of techniques for enhancing the performance of the conventional FDTD, in order to obtain accuracy the conformal FDTD method which simulates the curved perfect electrical conductor (PEC) [2,3]. Sub-gridding technique is used to increase the mesh density in the local area in which the field varies quickly [5,6]. The Multi-Resolution Time-Domain (MRTD) and Pseudo-Spectrum Time-Domain (PSTD) techniques are used to reduce the dispersion of the conventional yee grid [7,8]. The above techniques mentioned are used to improve the conventional FDTD technique for the purpose of reducing either memory requirements or simulation time. The parallel-processing FDTD accelerates the FDTD simulation by distributing the job to multiple processors, so th at the available memory for large problems is virtually unlimited. At the same time, the simulation time is dramatically reduced compared to a single-processor implementation. On the computational point of view the parallel processing have an important advantage which makes the parallel executions strategies easier. Parallel processing in computers is based on dividing a computer code into a number of segments and distribution of the task among a number of computers/processors, which are then executed in parallel. This may be achieved on hardware-level, software level, or both. Hardware-level parallelization necessitates alternative processor designs. Software-level parallelization can be either on data level or function level, depending on the characteristics of the code . In this paper one dimensional FDTD code is developed for parallel processing. The performance analysis of the code developed is compared with both serial and parallel. The code is simulated in different platforms and the results are obtained. The results shows the efficiency of the parallel processing in handling larger data and reduction of time compared to serial processing. FDTD METHOD The FDTD method is one of the well known approaches to solve MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s partial differential equations, because of its high versatility. FDTD algorithm is based on temporal and three-dimensional spatial discretization and it transforms the time-dependent MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s curl equations into a set of finite-difference relations [10, 11].Boundary conditions are needed on the edge of the simulation domain, among the several possible choices perfect matched layer (PML) boundary can be more accurate and the PML boundary is used in the developed code. One Dimension FDTD The one dimension FDTD starts with the formulation of the MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s equations, Where E and H are electric and magnetic field respectively. The one dimension equation for Ex and Hy are given, which denotes the Electric field with respect to x direction and magnetic field with respect to y direction. The update equations are given in (3) and (4). The FDTD update equations are used to develop the Matlab code and the code is excited with the Gaussian pulse and the results are obtained. PARALLEL FDTD According to the principle of FDTD algorithm, the electromagnetic field value at certain position can be decided by the value of last time step at this position and electromagnetic field value of this time step at nearby position. The electromagnetic field value has no direct relation to the values at position far from this point. So, the whole computational space can be divided into some sections that can be computed in some nodes of parallel computing system. The exchange of field values between nodes can be executed only at interface between sections. According to the basic concept, the computing between parallel nodes can be executed to simulate the serial computing in a single PC or workstation. This is the key point of our parallel FDTD algorithm. Fig.1 shows the methodology of serial and the parallel approach Figure 1. Serial and parallel approach PARALLEL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE The main idea of parallel processing starts with the updating the EM field components in each processor in the same instant. When the computation updates a field component on the border of the domain, some values belonging to the border of the adjacent domain are required to avoid communications during the computations each sub domain is surrounded by the border cells of the other domain. These border values are communicated after the updating phase. Thus the parallel processing is achieved. The first step of the FDTD modeling starts with the one dimensional method. A Gaussian pulse is generated in the centre of the problem space and the pulse propagates in the both the directions. The time step is taken to be 500 iteration steps and the total time required for the signal is 500fs. The time seconds are calculated by the time taken by the pulse to originate from the centre and to decay at the end. The Matlab code is developed for one dimensional FDTD for serial processing and the code is updated to parallel processing. The number of cells of the computation domain in varied by keeping the number of iterations constant and the time taken by the serial and the parallel processing is noted. The figure2 shows the comparison between the serial and parallel processing for different number of cells. From the figure 2 it is noted that the parallel processing code is able to process the large number of cells within the shorter period of time, thereby proving that the parallel processing can be used to process larger amount of data in shorter duration of time. Figure 2. Serial vs. parallel processing The parallel processing code developed has been simulated in various newer version Intel processors which is used to analyze the performance. The number of iterations are kept constant and the cell size is varied and the code is simulated in different Intel processors include i3, i5, i7 and Pentium processors. The results shows that the updated newer version i7 was able to process the data more quickly, so that the parallel processing can be used more efficiently in higher versions system which is easily available now a days. Figure 3 shows the Comparision with different versions of the processors. From the results it is observed that the i7 processor was able to process the code more efficiently than the others. Pentium processor which is one of the oldest among took larger time to process the code. Figure 3. Parallel processing on different versions of Intel processors The parallel code is simulated with different number of Matlab workers. Figure 4 shows the relation between the parallel code and the number of Matlab workers. In this code the number of iterations is kept constant and the time taken by the code to run with different number of cells is noted. The graph shows that parallel code works more efficiently when the number of workers is increased to be four. Figure 4. Performance with different number of Matlab workers The speed-ups increase with the problem size because of the better exploitation of CPU resources and parallel processing. Figure 5 shows the achieved speed-ups for with respect to the serial algorithm running on the CPU. Thus the parallel processing gives a better speed up for larger problems. Figure 5. Speed up comparison for serial and parallel processing From the figure 5 it is noted that the parallel processing gives a better speed up. With the previous results the number of iterations and the cell size is varied and the results are noted. For each cell size the iterations are changed and the values are noted. Figure 6 shows the speed up for different cell size at various iterations. From the figure it can be absorbed that larger the computation domain better the speed up thereby making the parallel processing very much suitable for larger computation domain. Figure 6. Iteration vs. Speedup CONCLUSION From the results it is observed that the disadvantage of the FDTD method can be overcome by using Parallel processing FDTD method. The performance analysis of this paper thereby shows that the parallel processing can be easily achieved efficiently by using modern CPUÃ¢â¬â¢s present today which can be used to do complex computations. REFERENCES . Yee, K. S., Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwells equations in isotropic media, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 14, No. 5, 302-307, May 1966. . Time Domain Maxwell s Equations Solver: Software and User s Guide, Norwood, MA, Artech House, 2004. . W. Yu and R. Mittra, A Conformal FDTD Software Package for Modeling of Antennas and Microstrip Circuit Components, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 42, 5, October 2000, pp. 28-39. . W. Yu and R. Mittra, A Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain Technique for Modeling Curved Dielectric Surfaces,Ã IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Letters, January 2001, pp. 25-27. . W. Yu and R. Mittra, A New Sub gridding Method for Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Algorithm, Microwave Opt. Techno. Lett. , 21, 5, June 1999, pp. 3 3 0-333. . B. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Yu, and R. Mittra, A Hybrid 2-D FDTD Sub gridding Scheme for Modeling On-Chip Interconnects, IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, 24, 4, November 200 1 , pp. 528-533. . X. Zhu, T. Dogaru, and L. Carin, Three-Dimensional Biorthogonal Multiresolution Time-Domain Method and Its Application to Electromagnetic Scattering Problems, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-51, 5, May 2003, pp. 1085- 1 092. . Q. H. Liu, The PSTD Algorithm: A Time-Domain Method Requiring Only Two Cells Per Wavelength, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.,IS,1997, pp. 1 58- 1 65.  W. H. Yu, Y. J. Liu, T. Su, N.-T. Huang, and R. Mittra, Ã¢â¬ A robust parallel conformal finite-difference time-domain processing package using the MPI library,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Antennas Propagat. Mag., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 39-59, 2005.  Almasi, G.S, and Gohlied, A, Ã¢â¬Å"Highly Parallel ComputingÃ¢â¬ . Benjamin Cummings Publishing, 2a ed., 1994. . Taflove A, Brodwin ME. Numerical solution of steady-state electromagnetic scattering problems using the time-dependent MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s equations. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech. 1975,MTT-23(8):623Ã¢â¬â30. . W. Yu, X. Yang, Y. Liu, and R. Mittra Ã¢â¬Å"Parallel FDTD Performance Analysis on Different Hardware Platforms Ã¢â¬Å",IEEE Int. Symp. Antennas and Propagation Meeting
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Lubna Rehman FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream Interpretation in the Light of Islamic Dream Ideas Questions about dreams, about why do we have them and what do they mean are questions that have been a subject of debate for centuries. On the one hand we have scientists who believe that we dream forÃ physiologicalÃ reasons alone and that dreams are essentially mental nonsense devoid of psychological meaning: Ã¢â¬Å"A tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing. Ã¢â¬ The idea that dreams are nothing more than Ã¢â¬Å"meaningless biologyÃ¢â¬ . On the other hand we have a coalition of Freudians which includes Dr.Fleiss who found his dream interpretations Ã¢â¬Å"quite accurateÃ¢â¬ and other dream analyzers who committed to the view that we dream forÃ psychologicalÃ reasons and that dreams always contain important information about the self or some aspects of one's life which can be extracted by various methods of interpretation. This camp says that Ã¢â¬Å"an uninter preted dream is like an unopened letter. Ã¢â¬ The third camp is the one occupying the middle ground, that believes both of the extreme positions on the function and meaning of dreams to be partly right and partly wrong.Its proponents such as Alfred Adler argue that dreams may have both physiological and psychological determinants, and therefore can be either meaningful or meaningless, varying greatly in terms of psychological significance. Allan Hobson was also for a psychological meaning of dreams but he thought no need to lock it under layers of secretive subconscious meanings. The fourth and another important camp about dreams in the Muslim faith. In the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, as in the Jewish Torah and the Christian New Testament, dreams serve as a vital medium by which God communicates with humans.Dreams offer divine guidance and comfort, warn people of impending danger, and offer prophetic glimpses of the future, offer a valuable source of wisdom, understanding, and inspiration. Sa tan also plays a major role in dreams by bestowing dreams that cause grief or even purely sexual dreams (unlike FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual Ã¢â¬ËinterpretationÃ¢â¬â¢) which requires the dreamer to take a bath. Trying to cover up the cultural chasm between Islamic and Western traditions, this paper is an attempt to highlight and contrast the Islamic and Freudian ideas of dream interpretation.The simple fact is that all humans dream, and thus dreaming itself is a bridging phenomenon between the two traditions. Freud thought that the function of dreams was to allow the release of repressed thoughts and impulses which cause excitation in neural activity. The only way that the wish could be subdued is by the release of the Ã¢â¬Å"nervous energyÃ¢â¬ that was caused by it. Also, Freud noted that Ã¢â¬Å"though the number of symbols is large, the number of subjects symbolized is not large. In dreams those pertaining to sexual life are the overwhelming majorityÃ¢â¬ ¦They represent the most primitive ideas and interests imaginable. Ã¢â¬ Therefore, the same Ã¢â¬Å"dream symbolÃ¢â¬ meant that they both had the same repressed wish. | Part of what made people skeptical about Freudian theories is this notion of universal dream symbolism. That is, if two people have the same visual imagery in a dream, is it the case that it has the same meaning? Some scientists dismiss the notion ofÃ meaningÃ all together. | Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley, two Harvard University scientists stressed that the motivating force for dreaming is notÃ psychologicalÃ butÃ physiological.Muslims on the other hand have been paying close attention to their dreams for nearly 1500 years, and their insights and observations have many significant points of contact with the theories developed by Western psychologists over the past 150 years. With the very definition of who the Islamic interpreters of dreams are, Muslims can discard the very existence of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. Sunnah says tha t the interpreters of dreams are either Prophets or their followers. Or else, they have to be good, pious and knowledgeable people who know the Quran, the sunnah, Arabic language and the culture and tradition of the people.Like Islam, even though Freud did look at the content, significance, purpose, the person, his people, state, job and livelihood; Freud limited his growth when he theorized that personality is developed by the personÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood experiences. He was always sure about his disbelief in religion. He actually envisaged that as the masses of people become further educated, they would Ã¢â¬Ëturn awayÃ¢â¬â¢ from the Ã¢â¬Ëfairy tales of religion. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã Carl Jung, a contemporary of Freud took an exception.He wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Freud has unfortunately overlooked the fact that man has never yet been able singlehanded to hold his own against the powers of darkness Ã¢â¬â that is, of the unconscious. Man has always stood in need of the spiritual help which each i ndividualÃ¢â¬â¢s own religion held out to him. Ã¢â¬ Jung agrees with Freud that dreams may look backward to past experiences, but he argues that dreams also look forward to anticipate what the dreamer's future developments may be . Jung did not mean that dreams predict the future, only that dreams can suggest what might happen, what possibilities the future might hold.Hence, Carl Jung, a totally opposite pole of Freud and a non-deliberate support to Islam, believes in the Ã¢â¬Å"religious manÃ¢â¬ unlike to Freud who believed in the Ã¢â¬Å"psychological manÃ¢â¬ . FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of dreams seems so much influenced by secularism and so he seems to approach dreams from a materialistic point of view. To him, unlike Islam, dreams represent purely material meanings and the characteristics of dream life are a disconnected activity of separated organs or groups of cells in a sleeping mind. Freud took dreams to be like phobias and obsessions.He classified dreams into wishf ul thinking, being aggressive or sexual and considered most of the symbols that appear in dreams to be sexual which represent the male or female sexual organs. As can be seen in the book Ã¢â¬Å"Interpretation of DreamsÃ¢â¬ , all kind of playing, slipping, breaking branches etc were all symbols of masturbation according to him and breaking of teeth was something symbolic to castration. He observed that these symbols are Ã¢â¬Å"a sort of substitute for the thought process, full of meaning and emotionÃ¢â¬ . Where he interprets a lock and key to be a sexual act, the Hadith interprets it to be a symbol of wealth, power and authority.Where he thinks of a knot to be another sexual act, a knot according to Islamic dream interpretation symbolizes grief. Unfastening of the knot symbolizes a freedom from grief. So, even though one can agree with him that these symbols carry a lot of meanings but one can also disagree with him on the kind of the meaning that they carry. It is not always tru e that all the dream symbols would carry the same message of aggressiveness and sexuality. Looking at our normal life and the dreams that we get from time to time it is not true that all of them fall under these categories as Freud claims.Some dreams reveal more important messages to an individual or to society. Logically speaking, human beings are different and so they think differently, therefore, even their dreams, which may be representing another world of creation, must be of different kinds and each dream by necessity must have a different message that it carries. Therefore, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s allegation that most dreams are sexual is not acceptable. Nevertheless, his division of dreams into simple and complex is acceptable. IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s disagreement with him lies in, among other things, the way he describes the simple dreams, which he called Ã¢â¬Å"wish ulfillments categoryÃ¢â¬ . In his words he elaborated this category by saying Ã¢â¬Å"these are connected with day time life. The wishes, which are fulfilled in them, are carried over from daytime and as a rule from the day before, and in waking life they have been accompanied by intense emotionÃ¢â¬ . It is also not true that all the simple dreams are carried over from daytime and it therefore follows that not all of them are wish fulfillments of a dreamer. Furthermore, his rule of such dreams coming from the day preceding the dream is also not true to all the dreams of this kind.An example to illustrate this will be of a dream analyst who was sent to Africa on a government mission. He confirmed that as much as he wished in his trip to East Africa to have a dream on Africans, he was not successful in the period of some months he spent with them. In Islam dreams are taken to be of great significance. They are not merely a matter of wild recollections of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s activities in his alertness that may resurface to someone in his sleep; rather they are a form of connection of the soul in its spirituality with the other unseen world.This can be easily observed in our daily activities or even in something as least-considered as clothes which do have spiritual connotations. For example a woman wearing silk clothes in her dream implies her getting married, acquiring wealth or even a ceremony of some forthcoming mourning. This clearly proves how dreams, as against FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, do have religious and not just materialistic links. In Surah Al-AnaÃ¢â¬â¢m, the Holy Quran says, Ã¢â¬Å"He is the One who takes up your souls at night, and knows what you earned during the day, then raises you from it (sleep), so as to complete the time fixed (for you to live)Ã¢â¬ .Surah Al-Zumr says, Ã¢â¬Å"God captures the souls at the time of death as well as those whose time has not yet arrived, in sleep. Then He keeps back those whose death has been decreed and sends back for an appointed time, the othersÃ¢â¬ . Hence, in disagreement with Freud, Islam sees a complete connection with God while dreaming. Where in Islam the dream is related to the truthfulness of the dreamer, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory proves it to be the preceding dayÃ¢â¬â¢s affair; where Freud believed dreams to only gratify unconscious desires and longings, Islam showcases them as a glimpse into the future, a hint or sometimes even a warning.Being irreligious, and especially a non-Muslim, Freud did very little for the dream-theory propounded by different religions. Though his Ã¢â¬Å"Interpretation of DreamsÃ¢â¬ presents an unprejudiced and almost unerring analysis of dreams, it includes only a few types of dreams. It gives us a mixture of different kinds of fallacious dreams while totally ignores the veracious dreams because veracious dreams have almost nothing to do with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche; and were, therefore, totally unknown to psychologists like Freud.Also, since the future is more important than the past of a dreamer, he would definitely prefer Islamic Hermeneutics in order to know about his future . Where Freudian Hermeneutics is the product of the researches/studies of one individual, in the Western context, in the Ã¢â¬ËModernÃ¢â¬â¢ post-Renaissance period; Islamic Hermeneutics represents a divinely revealed system incorporating the entire structure of human existence in this world and the next, which is in itself detailed, complete and traditionally active since many centuries in various parts of the Islamic world.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Introduction I. Attention-getter: Does anyone know what the term Ã¢â¬Å"GrowlerÃ¢â¬ means and how it relates to beer? (merriam-webster. com) A container for beer bought by the measure (can, pitcher, bottle, etc) II. Thesis statement: Beer is drank everyday in the United States, without a single consideration of the vessels they come in or how they came to be. III. Preview of Main Points: Today were going to discuss, when the growler first emerged, how it got its name, and the common day growler. Transition: Starting with my first point, when growlers first appeared. 1. The first growlers are believed to have emerged in the mid 1800s. A. The consumer wanted to drink beer at home, and during lunch breaks at work. B. They were the only way to have beer outside of the saloon or local tavern C. Growlers varied from glass, to pottery, to the most popular being a 2qt galvanized pail with lid. D. (focusonthebeer. com) they were sold as a pint, and filled 1/2 beer, and 1/2 foam. . Transition: Now that we have discussed when they emerged, letÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about how they got their name. 2. The term growler is actually up for some debate. A. Some believe it was sound of CO2 escaping from the lid of the pail. B. Others believe it was rumbling of the stomachs of workers waiting to have beer during lunch. C. (bottles. net) Many also believe it was conflict between the bartender, and the customer. The customer was Ã¢â¬Å"growlingÃ¢â¬ about not having a full pail, and the bartender was Ã¢â¬Å"growlingÃ¢â¬ about only having to charge for a pint. Transition: Lastly we are going to discuss the common day growler. 3. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until 1989 when it emerged again, in what we are familiar with today in terms of the growler A. (beeradvocate. com) In 1989 Charlie Otto is being credited for what we see in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s growler B. (grandtetonbrewing. com) formerly Ã¢â¬Å"Otto brothers brewing companyÃ¢â¬ Otto wanted to allow his customers to take beer home and enjoy it. C. After discussing this with his father, his father told him he needs a growler, which his father remembers getting filled for his father. D. Common day growler is a glass jug with a small handle. Often times with the Brewery label silk screened on the bottle Conclusion A. Review of Main Points: Today we have went over when the growler emerged, how it got its name, and the common day growler. B. Residual message: Today the growler is particularly popular with the craft beer breweries; it is believed to have stopped over 1 billion bottles, and cans going into the trash each year. References: Source 1 Merriam-Webster, 2013. Definition of the word Growler. Available from Merriam-Webster via internet (http://www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/growler). Source 2 IGrind, November 12, 2011. The Growler: Part 1 The Past. Available via the internet (http://www. focusonthebeer. com/2011/11/growler-part-1-past. html) Source 3 Jess Kidden, 2013. History of the Growler Available via the internet (http://www. bottless. net/The_History_of_The_Beer_Growler_s/605. htm) Source 4 BeerAdvocate, July 31, 2002. The Growler: Beer-to-Go! Available via the internet (http://beeradvocate. com/articles/384) Source 5 Grand Teton Brewing, Growler History. Available via the internet (http://www. grandtetonbrewing. com/Growlers. html).