Wednesday, June 10, 2020

Biotechnological innovations and Patent Law - Free Essay Example

The issue of biotechnological innovations in many respects represents a substantial challenge to law.[1] The provisions in the European Patent Convention 2000(EPC) and the Biotech Directive are lacking in managing this challenge, in light of the fact that they are vague and cant be utilized to reject indecent advancements. Opinions on patents in the field of biotechnology are divided, with support for unfettered scientific progress at one end of the spectrum and a commitment to uphold the basic values of society at the other. Where many see an important contribution to social progress, others are concerned about potential risks and ethical questions.[2] This note will critically analyse the statement by looking deep into patent laws and their interpretation by European Patent Office (EPO). First, this text will define à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Biotechnologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and label the provisions of EPC and the Biotech Directive dealing with biotechnology. Moreover the text will discuss briefly how morality influences the patent rights that are granted to biotech inventions. Furthermore some cases showing the uncertainties and controversies (arouses out while interpreting and imposing provisions of EPC and The directive) will also be highlight, proving the provisions of EPC and bio directive are unclear and not even able to identify weather an inventions is immoral. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Biotechnologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  means any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.[3] According to the European Patent Convention (EPC), biotechnological inventions are inventions which concern a product consisting of or containing biological material or a process by means of which biolog ical material is produced, processed or used.[4] To be patentable, biotechnological inventions have to meet the same criteria as those in any other field of technology. Patents can only be granted for inventions that are new, involve an inventive step and are susceptible of industrial application[TM1]. A specific legal definition of novelty has developed over the years, with new meaning made available to the public[TM2]. This means, for example, that a human gene, which existed before but was hidden from the public in the sense of having no recognised existence, can be patented when it is isolated from its environment or when it is produced by means of a technical process and as long as its industrial application is disclosed in the patent application[TM3]. All other requirements of patentability must also be fulfilled[TM4]. While biotechnological inventions are in principle patentable, due to the nature of biotechnology and its ethical implications there are specific rules wh ich apply when considering the patentability of an invention in this field.[5] Articles 52 and 53 of EPC say what can and cant be patented. Biotechnological developments are essentially patentable. Nonetheless, no European patent can be allowed for any of the accompanying: Any invention whose commercial exploitation would be contrary to à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ordre public or moralityà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[6] Plant and animal varieties.[7] Essentially biological processes for the production of plants and animals,[8] i.e. classical breeding comprising crossing and selection. Methods for treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy, and diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body.[9] Discoveries (e.g. the mere discovery of natural substances, such as the sequence or partial sequence of a gene) are not patentable. However, if an inventor provides a description of the technical problem they are intended to solve and a technical teaching they move from being a discovery to being a patentable invention.[10] Here, Article 52 of the EPC defines patentability in the European Community.'[11] Specifically, Article52(1) states that European patents shall be granted for any inventions which are susceptible of industrial application, which are new, and which involve an inventive step.[12] Subsequent provisions of the EPC narrow the broad language of potential patentability declared in Article 52(1). First, the EPC details with some clarity matter which does not have a sufficient inventive step to be patentable. Such materials include mathematical models, aesthetic creations, and presentations of information.[13] Next, categorical exclusions from the general rule of patentability are listed under Article 53.[14] Particularly relevant to this discussion, Article 53(b) excludes plant or animal varieties and essentially biological processes from patentability.[15] However, in contrast to the foregoing explanation of matter not rising to the level of an invention under Article 52, the terms variet ies or essentially biological are not defined under Article 53 or elsewhere in the EPC.[16] While the Guidelines for Examination of Patents (Guidelines) issued by the EPO attempt to define these terms,[17] However the Guidelines are not binding on the member states.[18] Thus, a lack of uniformity in patent protection among member states is distinctly possible under the existing definitional system.[19] In addition to the ambiguities surrounding the key definitions discussed above, the Article 53 exclusions from patentability are problematic with regard to biotechnological patents for several reasons. First, as noted by the European Parliament (Parliament), the patent system, when applied to living matter, must be adapted to the problems linked to the special nature of such matter.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [20] In light of changing technology, the ECs international competitors have explicitly declared living matter and even animals to be patentable and have enacted special rules to deal wit h problems unique to patenting living matter.[21] However, under Article 53 of the EPC, only microbiological inventions[22] can be patented.[23] Some member states have responded to the inadequacies of the outdated EPC provisions in this area by enacting national laws to deal specifically with biotechnology.[24] Second, the interpretation of the plant and animal varieties exclusion may be problematic. The basis of this exclusion was that,under the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV), another method exists besides patenting through which to obtain legal protection for plant varieties. The Convention declared that plant varieties were entitled either to a special title of protection or to a patent, but not both.[25] Unlike plants, however, animals do not have protection outside the scope of the EC patent system, under the UPOV or any other convention. Nonetheless, this exclusionary provision was invoked in the HARVARD/Onco-mouse decision by the Examining Division, which considered the Onco-mouse to be a type of animal variety.[26] The member states of the EC also have inadequate guidance on patenting biotechnological inventions because of inconsistent EPO decisions. Two prior decisions by the EPO Technical Board of Appeal indicate a proatent protection attitude[27] and seem initially to forecast fundamental change to the patent system.[28] In the Hybrid Plants/LUBRIZOL decision, the Technical Board of Appeal narrowly construed one of the stated exceptions to the general rule of patentability.[29] Also, in the CIBAIn the Article 53(b) exclusion clause and held that no general exclusion of inventions in the sphere of animate nature could be inferred from the EPC.[30] In HARVARD/Onco-mouse, however, the Examining Division initially refused to construe Article 53(b) narrowly and thus broke with the preceding opinions on the basis that there was different legislative intent behind the provision for plant and animal varieties.[31] The Appeals Board disagreed and noted that any such exception must, as repeatedly pointed out by the Boards of Appeal, be narrowly construed.[32] Because of HARVARD/Onco-mouse, the interpretation of Article 53(b) is unsettled.[33] In addition, by introducing Article 53(a) as a consideration in its patentability decision, the Examining Division thus set forth another consideration for member states to apply when determining patentability without any guidance other than the dicta from the HARVARD/Onco-mouse decision itself.This environment of inconsistent EPO case law may have a chilling effect on commercial biotechnology-a field where the economic incentive of the patent system is necessary to stimulate biotechnology research and development. This is true because biotechnology research is very expensive.[34] On the other hand, beside all these circumstances , in Europe, a debate on biotechnology patents started in the late 1980s with the aim of clarifying the dis tinction between what is patentable and what is not, and harmonising EU member states laws in this area. This led to the adoption on 6 July 1998 of EU Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. The directive has been implemented by all EU member states. As early as 1999, the EPC contracting states decided to incorporate the directive as secondary legislation into the Implementing Regulations to the EPC. Together with the EPC articles on substantive patent law, these rules now provide the basis for deciding on the patentability of biotechnology applications at the EPO. The incorporation of the EU directive into the EPC strengthened the practice of the EPO in biotechnology, whilst putting greater focus on ethical considerations. [35] Though the Directive only lists four specific types of invention as being unpatentable on moral grounds ((i) processes for cloning human beings,[36](ii) processes for modifying the germ line genetic identity of human bei ngs,[37] (iii) uses of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes,[38] (iv)processes for modifying the genetic identity of animals which are likely to cause them suffering without any substantial medical benefit to man or animal, and also animals resulting from such processes.[39])It also confirms that elements of the human body, such as genes, can be patentable when isolated from the human body.[40]The Directive basically settled a lot of the ethical debates about patentability of biotech inventions in Europe.[41] On the other hand discussing about immoral inventions it can be taken into consideration that the moral concerns currently raised in conjunction with biotechnology patents are misplaced because they stem from a lack of understanding of the patent system. A patent system is not a means of safeguarding the public interest. It is primarily a commercial and industrial tool that encourages innovation, divorced from social and moral concerns.[42] Because a patent gr ant affords a limited commercial monopoly to use only what is already in existence, the grant of a patent is not an ethical event.[43] Instead, it is the regulatory system of a given nation that monitors social concerns as it implements general legislation-concerns which frequently encompass ethics and morality.[44]Thus, a patent makes the existing research on genetic engineering open and available to the public, which, in turn, permits public monitoring of genetic engineering.[45] In the context of the FDA decision on genetically engineered foods,[46] it was noted that genetic technology is too promising, to dismiss it out of a free-floating mistrust. If the public understood the technology, they would understand that part of their emotional reaction is irrational.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [47] It is evident, then, that ethical concerns raised about the patent system reflect concerns about biotechnology itself rather than the grant of the patent for that biotechnology. Ethical issues assoc iated with patents are inappropriately channeled fears of insufficient regulation.[48] Nevertheless, the patent system has become another arena for the campaigns of the Green Party, environmental groups, and animal rights activists to try to regulate science and technology.[49] In fact, biological patents have been granted routinely since the 1800s,[50] but ethical concerns did not enter the realm of the patent system until genetic engineering blossomed. Public concern over patenting biotechnology may reflect a public reaction to the scope and sophistication of genetic engineering involved in biotechnology due to misperceptions and unfounded fearof genetic engineering. This is illustrated by a series of decisions in the Europe. In 1970, the German Supreme Court allowed a living organism to be patented in the Red Dove case.[51] That case preceded the development of genetic engineering and was not followed by any significant public controversy. [52]However, following the advent o f genetic engineering the 1980 United States Supreme Court holding in Chakrabarty, which paralleled the Red Dove decision in principle by holding genetically engineered bacteria to be patentable, was followed by a public debate over the morality of patenting living matter.[53] Then, in 1987 the United States Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences determined in Ex Parte Allen that higher life forms, such as oysters, were patentable.[54] That decision triggered significantly more controversy [55]than a typical Board decision.[56] Finally, the 1987 PTO decision to allow genetically engineered animals such as the Onco-mouse to be patented stimulated tremendous controversy.[57] This litany indicates that debate over patenting biotechnology has sharpened with the sophistication and use of biotechnology despite the fact that the underlying scientific principles and patent procedures remain the same. There is a distinct paucity of case law that discusses ethical issues as a preclus ion to patentability. This is the case even in the EPO decisions despite the existence of Article 53(a), which explicitly allows a consideration of ethics for patentability. The EPO Guidelines indicate that Article 53(a) is to be invoked only in rare and extreme cases[58] and is aimed at preventing extreme situations such as riots and criminal behavior[59]The lack of discussion prior to HARVARD/Onco-mouse may indicate that ethics were generally not considered in patenting decisions. In fact, the Examining Division initially stated in HARVARD/Onco-mouse that it does not consider patent law an appropriate legislative tool and therefore declined to rule under Article 53(a).[60] To a limited extent, the EPO Guidelines on Article 53(a) and the cases are illuminating on the role ethics should play in the area of patentability. Ethics have been considered regarding the usefulness requirement that all patentable inventions must meet in both the EC and the United States. The issue is whether ethical issues render an invention useless according to statutory requirements for patentability.[61] In the United States, courts historically have been reluctant to deny patents based solely on ethical concerns[62] and consider an invention patentable so long as it has some moral use.[63] The drafters of the EPO Guidelines seem to concur in this result. The Guidelines state that a patent may be granted if an invention has both an offensive and non-offensive use.[64] The Guidelines set forth as an example a process for breaking open safes; that is a process that may be offensive if used by burglars, but which is potentially non-offensive and very useful if used by a locksmith in an emergency. [65] Imposing barriers to biotechnological patents will not prevent the advance of genetic engineering or address the ethical issues raised by scientific advancement. These issues will persist regardless of whether patents are granted.[66] Furthermore, even if the EC ignores the field of bi otechnology, its international competitors will not.[67] As the United States Supreme Court stated, The grant or denial of patents on micro-organisms is not likely to put an end to genetic research however whether claims are patentable may determine whether research efforts are accelerated by the hope of reward or slowed by want of incentives.[68] In Germany a special Commission of Inquiry on the Opportunities and Risks of Genetic Technology echoed these insights and stated that the types of criticism of genetic engineering are often simultaneously or primarily criticisms of over-arching strategies which have developed independently of genetic engineering involving basic problems of industrialization. [69] The Directive enacted by the EC because it recognizes the potential ethical concerns and the reality of scientific progress.[70] The international competitors of the EC are capitalizing on biotechnology and encouraging scientific innovation by allowing biotechnological patents t o issue under systems more lenient than the EPC. The Directive begins to address the EC gap in protection for biotechnological inventions, which are crucial to the commercial and international competitiveness of the EC, by mandating uniform legal protection. Although the scope of protection for biotechnological inventions under the EPC and the directive is limited, passage of the Directive was still a necessary step to take in narrowing the gap between the EC and its international competitors. Whether the Directive will achieve its goals remains to be seen. However, the history of the European Onco-mouse has shown that the current outlook for biotechnological innovations will remain bleak if no action is taken.The Onco-mouse currently stands alone in an area of inadequate and murky protection for biotechnology innovations. Without immediate action on the part of the Commission and member states, the EC will stand alone in its ethical debate as other nations simultaneously commerci alize biotechnology and manage ethical concerns associated with biotechnological inventions. [1] Roberto Bin, Sara Lorenzon, Nicola Lucchi, Biotech Innovations and Fundamental Rights (1st, Springer Science Business Media, 2012) 3 [2] European Patent office, Patent on Biotechnology ( 2013) accessed 29 January 2015 [3] Convention on biological diversity 1992 Art. 2 [4] European Patent Convention 2000 Art. 26 (2) [5] European Patent office, Patent on Biotechnology ( 2013) accessed 29 January 2015 [6] European Patent Convention 2000 Art. 53(a) [7] Ibid. Art. 53 (b) [8] Ibid. [9] European Patent Convention 2000 Art. 53 (c) [10] Ibid. Art. 52 (2) (a) [11] Ibid. Art. 52 [12] Ibid. Art. 52 (1) [13] Ibid. Art. 52 (2) [14] Ibid. Art. 53 [15] Ibid. Art. 53(b) [16] Kevin W. OConnor, Patenting Animals and Other Living Things [1991] S.CAL. L. REV 65, 597,617 [17] European Patent Office, IV, Guidelines for exa mination in the European Patent Office (1992).p 3,4, [18] Exxon, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Aluminia Spineà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  [1998] Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. p.389,391 [19] Andrew J A Parkes, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The Significance of the European patent convention and the community patent conventionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , (Marry Robinson, 1999) p.51 [20] Proposal for a Council Directive on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions Approved with the Following Amendments, 1992 (C 125) 183, 183 (Amendment No. 3) [21] See infra notes 62-74, 100 and accompanying text. [22] European Patent Convention 2000 Art. 53 [23] Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention 1963, Art. 2(b) [24] John Hodgson, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Dutch Regulations Now in Force biotechnologyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (1990) p. 284 [25] International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 1978, art. 2(1), [26] See infra note 77 and accompanying text. [27] LUBRIZOL /Hybrid plants [1990] Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. 173 (EPO); CIBAGEIGY/ Propagating material, [1985] C Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. 758 (EPO) [28] Fundamental changes in patent law have been previously sparked by court decisions, at least in the United States. See Exparte Allen, 2 U.S.P.Q.2d 1425 (PTO Bd. Pat. App. int. 1987) (genetically engineered oysters are potentially patentable, even though they are living matter); In re Bergy, 596 F.2d 952,972,976 (manmade, biologically pure culture of microorganism is patentable because it only occurs in an impure form in nature). These decisions foreshadowed the PTO announcement, although it was most immediately prompted by the ruling in Allen. See Donald 3. Quigg, Animals-Patentability, Statement of April 7, 1989, reprinted in ANIMAL PATENTS, supra note 9, at 159 (outlining the holding of Allen and the rationale behind it, as well as the scope of patentability under 35 U.S.C. 101). For a more detailed discussion of case law preceding and the PTO decision, see Bradford Chaucer, Note, Life, The Patent Office and Everything: Patentability foreshadowing of Lifeforms Created Through Bioengineering Techniques, 9 BRIDGEPORT L. REV. 413 (1988). [29]LUBRIZOJHybrid plants, [1990] Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. 173,177. (EPO) [30] CIBA-GEIGY/Propagating material, [1985] Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. Vol. C. 758, 759 [31] HARVARD/Onco-mouse, [1990] Eur. Pat. Off. Rep.4,7. [32] Ibid. [33] Ibid.; [34] IRA H. CARMEN, CLONING AND THE CONsTITbTON: AN INQUIRY INTO GOVERNMENTAL POLICYMAKING AND GENETIC EXPERIMENTATION 23, 26 (1985) [35] European Patent office, Patents on life? European law and practice for patenting biotechnological inventions ( ),d.ZGUcad=rja accessed 29 January 2015 [3 6] Directive 44/EC 1998, Art 2(a) [37] Ibid. Art 2 (b) [38] Ibid. Art 2 (c) [39] Ibid. Art 2 (d) [40] Ibid. Art 5 (2) [41] Suleman Ali , The ethics of biotech patenting: a dialogue about monopolies, human dignity and the cost of medicines ( 2015) accessed 29 January 2015 [42] Robert P. Merges, Intellectual Property in Higher Life Forms: The Patent System and Controversial Technologies, (1988) 47 MD. L. REV. 1051, 1067-68 [43] See Bent, supra note 69, at 7; Debates, supra note 50, at 18 (right of prohibition only). [44] 148. See BIOTECHNOLOGY GLOBAL, supra note 2, at 203-04; Bent, supra note 69, at 7-8; Merges, supra note 146, at 1067-68. [45] 149. Debates, supra note 50, at 18. Rapporteur Rothley stated that: [46] Gene-Altered Food Called Safe, Facts on File World News Digest, ( 1992,) accessed 29 January 2015 [47] Molly ONeill, Geneticists, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Latest Discovery: Public Fear of Frankenfood, N.Y. TIMESà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (1992) [48] 152. See generally Cantley, supra note 112, at 14-15 [49] (1991) 59 U. Mo. Kan. City L. Rev. 409,410; (1989) 42 OKLA. L. REV. 131 [50] Alex Barnum, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Biotech Labs Enraged by Bid to Patent Human Genesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , S.F. CHRON. (1991) [51] Rote Taube (Red Dove), 1 Int. Rev. of Indus. Prop. Copyright. (IIC) 136 (1970) [52] 156. See Straus, supra note 4, at 17-18. [53] 157. See generally id at 17-18 (indicating public concern about patenting higher organisms stems from the novelty of genetic engineering and a general lack of understanding of how the patent system functions). [54] (1987) 2 U.S.P.Q.2d 1425 [55] 159. See Manspeizer, supra note 9, at 418-19; Merges, supra note 146, at 1052. [56] 160. See Merges, supra note 146, at 1052. [57] 161. See supra notes 68-70 and accompanyin g text (discussing legislative activity following the grant of the Onco-mouse patent). [58] EPO Guidelines, IV, 3.1. [59] Ibid. [60] Harvard/Onco-mouse, (1990) Eur. Pat. Off. Rep. 4, 11. [61] See Merges, supra note 146, at 1062-63 [62] (1977) 200 U.S.P.Q. 801, 802;Fuller v. Berger, 120 F. 274,275-76 (7th Cir. 1903);Lowell v. Lewis 15 F. Cas. 1018,1019 (C.C.D. Mass. 1817) [63] Klein v. Russell, 86 U.S. 433, 467 (1873) [64] EPO Guidelines, IV, 3.3 [65] Ibid. [66] 181.COOK Er. AL, supra note 2,at 120. [67] 182. See supra notes 51-59 and accompanying text. [68] Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. at 317. [69] BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE SOCIETY: SCENARIOS AND OPTIONS FOR EUROPE 117, 123 (Edward Yoxen Vittorio Di Martino eds., 1989). [70] [TM1]Add reference [TM2]Refer [TM3]ref [TM4]ref

Monday, May 25, 2020

Women Characters in The White Queen (Wars of the Roses)

In June, 2013, BBC One debuted a 10-part series, The White Queen, a depiction of the Wars of the Roses seen through the eyes of key women, and based on a series of historical novels by Philippa Gregory. The White Queen refers to Elizabeth Woodville, and The White Queen is the title of Gregorys first book in the series that is being adapted. Dont expect it to be exactly history -- but Gregory has respect for history, and that will likely show through in the series as well, even though there will be lots of poetic license taken. The other books in the series are The Red Queen  (about Margaret of Anjou), The Kingmakers Daughter  (about Anne Neville),The Lady of the Rivers (about Jacquetta of Luxembourg), The White Princess  (about Elizabeth of York)  and  The Kings Curse  (about Margaret Pole.) The sequel BBC One series,  The White Princess,  debuted in 2017. You can also see this as something of a prequel to the popular series, The Tudors. Elizabeth Woodville was the grandmother of King Henry VIII, featured in that series. Here are some of the women youll likely encounter in the series, and some of their interconnections -- youll see why Gregory called the series on the Wars of the Roses The Cousins War -- many close relatives found themselves on opposite sides. Many of the key characters traced their ancestry to the sons of Edward III of England, or to other kings of England. The White Queen and Her Family Elizabeth Woodville (1437 - 1492), widow of Sir John Grey who was on the Lancastrian side in the Wars of the Roses, and who was killed in the battle at St. Albans. The legend of her meeting with Edward IV under an oak tree by the side of a road is a very early one. That they secretly married and thwarted the marriage plans for Edward being made by Edwards uncle, the Earl of Warwick (known as the Kingmaker), is historical. One of her sons by John Grey was an ancestor of Lady Jane Grey.Jacquetta of Luxembourg, mother of Elizabeth Woodville, was a descendant of Englands King John. Her father was a French count. Jacquettas first husband was the brother of Henry V. She had no children by that first marriage, but at least ten by her second to Richard Woodville. She was accused during her lifetime of using witchcraft.Elizabeth of York (1466 - 1503), eldest daughter of Elizabeth Woodville and Edward IV, became the queen consort of Henry VII and mother of Henry VIII, Mary Tudor and Margaret T udor.Catherine or Katherine Woodville(~1458 - 1497), sister of Elizabeth Woodville, who married advantageously thanks to her connection to her sister the Queen. She became the Duchess of Buckingham and the Duchess of Bedford.Mary Woodville (~1456 - 1481), another sister of Elizabeth Woodville, was able to marry the heir to the Earl of Pembroke through her sisters connections. Her father-in-law was executed by Warwick, the Kingmaker.Cecily of York (1469 - 1507) was the second surviving daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. (An older sister, Mary of York, died in 1482, before she could be married.) Edward tried to marry her to the Scottish royal heir, then to that heirs brother, but Edward died before that could be complete. Then Cecilys marriages were arranged -- and unarranged -- by the next two kings, Richard III (her uncle) and Henry VII (her brother-in-law). The Kingmaker and His Family Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, (1428 - 1471) was a powerful figure in the drama of the Wars of the Roses. He used his female family connections to advantage, including gaining the Warwick title itself through his wifes inheritance. He was called the Kingmaker, as his presence -- and that of the troops he could muster -- would make a difference in which king won. Lady Anne Beauchamp (1426 - 1492), Countess of Warwick, wife of the Kingmaker, mother of Anne Neville and Isabella Neville. She was an heiress, inheriting the Warwick titles because no male heirs remained, and bringing them to her husband. She was descended on the maternal side from King Edward III and the powerful Despenser family.Cecily Neville (1415 - 1495), was the aunt of the Kingmaker. She was the mother of Edward IV as well as of George, Duke of Clarence, and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was married to Richard, Duke of York, who was the heir of Henry VI and his protector during his minority and during one or more bouts of insanity. Both Cecily and her husband were descendants of King Edward III of England and his wife, Philippa of Hainault. Cecilys mother was a daughter of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford.Anne Neville (1456 - 1485), daughter of Richard, Duke of York, called the Kingmaker, who was a nephew of Cecily Neville. She first married Edward of York, son of Henry V I of England, but after his early death, married Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III, brother of Edward IV (and son of Cecily Neville). Richard and Anne were first cousins once removed.Isabella Neville (1451 - 1476), sister of Anne Neville, and thus daughter of the Kingmaker and great niece of Cecily Neville. She was also known as Isabel. She married George, Duke of Clarence, a younger brother of Edward IV (and older brother of Richard III, Anne Nevilles second husband), and also a son of Cecily Neville. Isabella and George were first cousins once removed. From the House of Lancaster Margaret of Anjou (1429 - 1482), was the queen consort of the Lancastrian king, Henry VI of England, with whom Edward IV contended in the Wars of the Roses. Margaret of Anjou was herself an active Lancastrian leader. Elizabeth Woodville had been a maid of honor serving Margaret of Anjou when she married Sir John Grey.Margaret Beaufort (1443 - 1509) was the Red Queen to Elizabeth Woodvilles White Queen. She was married to Edmund Tudor when she was only 12, and gave birth to his child after he died in Yorkist captivity. That child later became Henry VII. Though she married twice more, she never had more children, and threw her support to her sons cause in the Wars of the Roses. More? These women arent likely to be in the series, except by reference, but are important to the context of the story. Catherine of Valois (1401 - 1437), sister-in-law of Jacquetta, was the queen consort of Henry V of England and mother of Lancaster king Henry VI. She was also the grandmother of Henry VII, the first Tudor king, via her second husband, Owen Tudor. This is the same Henry VII who married Elizabeth Woodvilles daughter, Elizabeth of York. Catherines father was Charles VI of France. She is not likely to make an appearance in The White Queen: she died the year that Elizabeth Woodville was born.Margaret of Burgundy, a sister of Edward IV who was friendly with Edwards new wife Elizabeth Woodville. Margaret was married off to the Duke of Burgundy a few years after Edward became king, and after the Tudor triumph, her home became a haven for Yorkists in exile.Lady Jane Grey was descended from one of Elizabeth Woodvilles sons by her first husband, John Grey, and from one of Elizabeth Woodvilles daughters, Elizabeth of York, by her second husband Edward IV, through Elizabeth of Yorks and Henry VII s daughter Mary Tudor.Margaret Pole (1473 - 1541) was the daughter of Isabella Neville and George, Duke of Clarence. She was a peeress in her own right, and eventually earned the enmity of Tudor King Henry VIII. The Roman Catholic Church beatified her as a martyr in 1886.Elizabeth Tilney (1447 - 1497) was a lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth Woodville. Whether shell appear in the series I doubt, but it would be a subtle foreshadowing of the Tudor era: she was grandmother to both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, second and fifth wives of Henry VIII. One way women often got entangled into the Wars of the Roses: illegitimacy controversies. Learn more about some of those: Birther Controversies and the Wars of the Roses Many of these same women were portrayed in Shakespeares Richard III as well.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Questions On Database Management System - 1123 Words

Jody Fedor IT2700: Systems Analysis Design Assignment #6 – Review Questions Chapter #6 – Data Design 1. Explain the main difference between a file-oriented system and a database system. A file-oriented system utilizes data in a regular OS file based format where a database system uses a database engine that organizes data in a database in a table format utilizing rows for each record. 2. What is a DBMS? Briefly describe the components of a DBMS. DBMS stands for Database Management System. A DBMS is a collection of tools, features, and interfaces that enables users to add, update, manage, access, and analyze the contents of a database. A DBMS is made up of a DML (data manipulation language), Schema and subschemas, Physical data repository, and an Interface to allow access to the database from DBA’s, Users, and Related Information Systems. 3. Describe a primary key, candidate key, secondary key, foreign key, and common field. Primary Key – a field or combination of fields that uniquely and minimally identifies an entity. Candidate Key – Any field or combination of fields that can act as the primary key but are not. Secondary Key – Any field of combination of fields that can be use to identify a entity. Foreign Key – A field that exists in an entity that is the PK of another entity. Common Field – An attribute (field) that appears in more than one entity (record). 4. What are entity-relationship diagrams and how are they used? What symbol isShow MoreRelatedQuestions On Database Management System Essay1834 Words   |  8 Pages______________________________________ Please do not add any more lines to each question than is provided. There is ample room to supply the correct answers. 1.1 List four examples of database systems other than those listed in Section 1.1. †¢ Hospital Management system - patient details database †¢ Car sales and service system -Customer and inventory database †¢ Mobile shop system -Customer and inventory database †¢ Department of Homeland security -Student’s database 1.2 Define each of the following terms: Data DetailsRead MoreQuestions On Database Management System921 Words   |  4 Pages1. Interpreting language: Since the file-processing system can be built on any of the programming languages, this will be a tedious task for other language developers to understand the actual logic behind the data storage and build a new requirement. But Database Management System (DBMS) uses a Structured Query Language (SQL) which will be used universally to insert, update or delete the data by all the developers and this will act as a common language for all the developers/ end users to work withRead MoreIT 205 Week 3 Individual Assignment899 Words   |  4 Pages Enterprise Applications Paper Question 1: Describe two effects of database tools and   technologies on business performance and decision making. Database tools and technologies affected the business processes and decision making by a great extent. The most important benefit of the database is to change unstructured information into structured information, and allow users to analysis the data stored into different tables with the help of queries. Before database, all the information used to storedRead MoreDatabase Management and Information Retrieval1367 Words   |  5 PagesDifferentiate between database management system and information retrieval system by focusing on their functionalities. Answer A database management system (DBMS) is the main software tools of the database management approach because it controls the creation, maintenance and use of the databases of an organization and its end users. Information retrieval is a system that to provide the relevant information based on the user needed. This process can be find through the passwords or keywords or queryRead MoreDatabase Management System ( Dbms )1391 Words   |  6 Pages A database management system or DBMS is a certain type of system software, which is used for the creation, and management of databases. A DBMS serves for multiple purposes but is mainly used to provide users and programmers with a systematic way to retrieve, create, manage, and update data. A DBMS serves as an interface between data and its end user, making sure that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible to users. DBMS’s are vital to several aspects of our technological worldRead MoreManagement Informational System 1165 Words   |  5 PagesAnswer Review questions 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 16, 18, amp; 22 in your own words. First, write the questions, and then answer with proper explanation. 1. Define the term database. How is it different from a database management system? Database is simply a collection of data. A database helps and provides managers and decision making people with timely and relevant information that leads the company to organizational success. A database management system is totally different than regularRead MoreDatabase Mangement and Retrieval System1425 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1. Differentiate between database management system and information retrieval system by focusing on their functionalities. Database Management System (as known as DBMS) is a set of application that enable user to create, edit, update, store and retrieve data from database files. By using DBMS, data in a database can be added, deleted, changed, sorted and searched. DBMSs are usually used to manage employee information of a big company, customer information and stock information. By usingRead MoreNt2520 Unit 3 Assignment 1 Essay618 Words   |  3 PagesOutcomes Use the database modeling template in MS Visio. Create entities and add attributes of a database. Define relationship between entities of a database. Create many-to-many relationships with a linking table. Assignment Requirements Answer the following True or False questions on the student answer sheet. Required Resources Textbook Submission Requirements Submit your written answers to your instructor at the beginning of Unit 4. Unit 3 True/False Questions Indicate whetherRead MoreAnalysis of Database Management and Information Retrieval Systems1117 Words   |  5 PagesDIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM BY FOCUSING ON THEIR FUNCTIONALITIES 2. HIGHLIGHT THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION 3. MAKE APPROPRIATE USE OF DIAGRAMS TO ILLUSTRATE THE UNDERLYING CONCEPTS/COMPONENTS OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 4. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN STRUCTURED AND NON STRUCTURED DATA. GIVE EXAMPLES FOR EACH. 5. REFERENCES 6. APPENDICES â€Æ' 1. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND INFORMATION RETRIEVALRead MoreRelational Database Concepts and Applications: Research Paper669 Words   |  3 PagesRelational Database Concepts and Applications Professor Kevin W†¦.. By Bob Bobson March 7, 2014 Introduction In order to successfully transition from our current paper and email based equipment request method to a completely paperless online system, we must build and implement a relational database. A relational database will allow us to store, filter, make changes to, and share of the data that is needed in our new online equipment ordering system. Relational Database Overview

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Application Of A Business Process Modeling - 743 Words

Abstract— BPM is typically performed by business analysts, who provide expertise in the modeling discipline. Every business requires some form of investment and enough customers to whom its output can be sold on a consistent basis in order to make a profit. A series of action or steps to be taken in order to achieve a particular end. Business process modeling enables a common understanding and analysis of a business process. A process model can provide a comprehensive understanding of a process. An enterprise can be analyzed and integrated through its business processes. Hence the importance of correctly modeling its business processes. Business analysts can use IBM Blueworks Live to denote milestones at various points in the process life cycle, including the point at which the process is ready to be implemented in IBM BPM. IBM Blueworks Live is a cloud-based business process modeler, belonging under the set of IBM SmartCloud applications. The application is designed to hel p organizations discover and document their business process, business decisions and policies in a collaborative manner. Keywords— Bussiness Processing Modelling,Modeling tools, Functions, Case Study, Tool analysis. I. I) BUSSINESS PROCESSING MODEL BUSINESS process modeling unquestionably belongs to software development process. It usually directly influences the database solution of the problem domain. Most of the business process modeling methodologies simply originated form ‘best practice’ withoutShow MoreRelatedSoftware Development Life Cycle : Capgemini844 Words   |  4 Pagesdevelopment models. They are the Rapid Application development and the SCRUM models. Software Development Life Cycle A software development lifecycle is the base for any software development project. It is essentially a series of steps, or phases, that provide a model for the development and lifecycle management of an application or piece of software. The methodology within the SDLC process can vary across industries and organizations. The intent of an SDLC process is to help produce a product that isRead MoreMethods For Defining And Analyzing Key EA Performance Metrics Analysis1105 Words   |  5 PagesCameron, B. H. (2015, February). Methods for Defining and Analyzing Key EA Performance Metrics. Business and Enterprise Architecture, 18(2), 1-22. Retrieved from This journal strives to close the gap between EA value and the metrics that will define its value. Within the document, the author defines specific categories, that when clearly defined, help prove the value of the organizations assets.Read MoreObject And Process Modeling, And Stragies For System Analysis And Problem Solving1104 Words   |  5 PagesSystem Analysis and System Requirements Object Modeling, Process Modeling, and Strategies for System Analysis and Problem Solving April 6, 2005 Object Modeling A class can be described as a collection of objects of similar type. These objects often share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and semantics. Additionally, once a class is defined any number of objects can be created and associated to that class. For example, beagles and boxers represent different breeds (iRead MoreData Modeling Concepts1133 Words   |  5 PagesData Modeling Concepts COM 660 Data Modeling Concepts Following document explains what are data models and the importance of data model. Building a good data model helps organizations in software development, data base design and product maintenance. The document explains the theory, even if it looks like the organizations are spending substantial amount of resources on developing data models, but still it helps organization, keeping the costs low and build a better product. Database constitutesRead MoreThe Data Frameworks And Business Necessities Speak With Different Groups On The Advancement Of Information Models Essay1523 Words   |  7 PagesThis undertaking, Data demonstrating and sharing fundamentally concentrates on a database s portion issues. The Data Modeler creates information models to address the association s issues data Frameworks and business necessities speak with different groups on the advancement of Information models. Creates information models to address the association s issues data Frameworks and deals with the stream of data between offices through the utilization of Social databases and Maintains informationRead MoreBuilding Information Modeling And Construction Industry1222 Words   |  5 PagesBuilding Information Modeling in Construction Industry Jyothirmai Chatrathi, BIS 625 Research in Information Systems College of Business Administration, Department of Business Information Systems Central Michigan University Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48858 USA Keywords: Information systems, construction industry, Building Information Modeling. Background: The development of technology is very rapid in many industries, but in the field of construction it is very slow andRead MoreProcess Modeling, Er Diagram and Logical Data Modeling969 Words   |  4 PagesWhite paper on Process Modeling, ER diagram and Logical Data Modeling Authors Yogini Wagh Process Modeling Process modeling is the concise description of the total variation in one quantity, by partitioning it into a deterministic component given by a mathematical function of one or more other quantities, plus a random component that follows a particular probability distribution. Software process modeling and business process modeling are the techniques for obtaining a better understandingRead Moretech summary Essay examples1464 Words   |  6 Pagesrequired 2ï ¼â€°Rationalization: Streamline standard operating procedures 3ï ¼â€°Business process reengineering: Analyze, simplify, and redesign business processes 4ï ¼â€°Paradigm shifts: Rethink the nature of the business and the nature of organization. †¢ Define business process management and describe the steps required to carry it out. Business process management: use various tools and methodologies to analyze existing processes, design new process, and optimize those processes and it can never be over for the conditionRead MoreEssay On User Profiling1081 Words   |  5 PagesSurvey from Modeling to Personalization Abstract The growth of the available information on the web and the diversity of its users is a valuable resource for personalization. The user profile includes the essential information about the user and it is an outcome of the user profiling process. Building and maintaining dynamic user profile is the main challenge in developing an effective personalized application. Many research projects and companies are interesting in developing modeling systems andRead MoreBenefits Of Building Information Modeling Essay965 Words   |  4 Pages5. Benefits of Building information modeling in Cost Estimation The cost estimation is the crucial section in the construction industry and estimation of cost is done depending on the number of labor, material, and the time conditions. The cost estimation is a time taking process and it seeks the participation of entire cost estimator group. †¢ For estimating the cost, BIM produces rapid cost feedback throughout the lifecycle of the building. †¢ The model has the ability which enables the construction

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Eile Wiesels Night Essay - 599 Words

Eile Wiesels Night Eile Wiesel was born in Transalvanya. He was asked many times to write about his experinces in the Holocaust. He waited ten years after he was freed from Buchenwald, he didnt want to write a hate-filled account of his experince. He recived the Noble Prize for Night in 1992. He lives in the United states and teaches at Boston University. Setting: Night takes place in World War II in the 1940s. It starts in Sighet, Hingary. When the Nazis arrive in Hunary and the Jews are move into the ghetto. After a short period of time they where moved to Birkenau, an area in Auschwitz. After some time in Auschwitz, Elie and his father were moved to Buna. They were then canged two more times first to Gleiwitz and finally†¦show more content†¦To the Nazis Wiesel was a good worker since he was young and strong. Through this horrible experience Wiesel grows up. Chlomo Wiesel was Elies father. He was a valued member in their Jewish community and many people came to him for advice. He remained strong throughout the entire ordeal even though he was getting old and the small rations were insufficient. He eventually died, although its unknown whether he died in his sleep or if he was taken to the crematory still alive. Juliek is a Polish violinist who is also a prisoner in the concentration camp with Elie and his father. Juliek loves music and dreams of being able to play Beethoven, but Jews arent allowed to play German music. When forced to leave Buna since the lines are drawing near, he takes his violin with him and plays for the dying men outside Gleiwitz. When Elie awoke Juliek had passed away, his violin beside him. Moshe the Beadle was a poor, religious man who lived amongst the Jews of Sighet. Before he was deported he sang and chanted. He was also Elies master of the cabbala. When he came back from the orest of Galacia his whole demeanor had changed. He told stories of how the Gestapo had killed all of the deportees by mercilessly shooting each of them and leaving them for dead. No one believed him and thought he had lost his mind even though he tried many times without avail to get them to

Beowulf Papers - 850 Words

Beowulf Papers A hero is a man of courage and ability who is admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. A hero is a person who does not come along very often in any time period. He is a special person, who is a step above the average person in the way that he handles any situation that may arise. This statement is very true for the time of Anglo-Saxon culture and literature. A hero was like a god and was put on a pedestal far above the others. A hero brought peace to situations that were deemed impossible and brought joy to many people. In the poem Beowulf, there is a great example of what a hero is about in this time. Beowulf is the great warrior of the Geats and he will do anything necessary to keep peace and to†¦show more content†¦This is a tribute to Beowulfs special strength and ability. While the head is one of several items he carries up, four of them had trouble carrying Grendels head on spear-shafts to the goldhall (Norton, 48). What others deem impossible, a hero makes possible. There are only a few great heroes that come about in this time and Beowulf is definitely one of them. He is a great warrior and leader, a perfect description for him. Heroes only came along once in a while in this culture but it was well known when they did. Kenning Identification In poetry, there is often the use of many words that may seem a bit strange to the average reader. These words are often more complex than what is actually meant, but are used to enhance the reading and make it more enjoyable to the reader. Other words would make the poem less smooth, and that is why such complexity arises. These words shape a type of metaphor, which is referred to as a kenning. A kenning is a metaphorical circumlocution, signifying a person or thing by a characteristic or quality (Skill, 10). It is used quite often in Anglo Saxon poetry and is used to great length in Beowulf. The language of Beowulf has use of four-beat alliterative line and this allows the use of a variety of kennings. The use of kennings had such an effect on poetry that many phrases often became cliches. For example, there are many kenningsShow MoreRelatedBeowulf Research Paper991 Words   |  4 PagesIm doing my three page research paper over Beowulf, the story of a warrior from ancient times when monsters, goblins, and demons still plagued the Earth that we live on still today. Beowulf was a tall tale told for many, years to children before they fell asleep at night. Its a story that has been around from 720-796 a.d. And hasnt gotten old yet, because it inspires people and tells people what real hero’ s are capable of and what theyre made of and the limits they can surpass all on their ownRead MoreBeowulf: Christian vs Pagan Influence Term Paper1665 Words   |  7 PagesThe European epic, Beowulf, was written sometime in the eighth century in England. This time period provides us with an idea for the mixture of Christian and pagan elements because of an English society that was in the process of converting from Paganism to Christianity. Examples of Pagan and Christian traditions are presented all throughout literature. Many of the influences deal with what it going on in the world, when the piece is written. When Beowulf was written, St. Augustine had just comeRead MoreBeowulf Character Analysis999 Words   |  4 Pagesflaws and personality. Then, say that Beowulf, a poem about a man who is as deep as a sheet of paper, is a masterpiece. While the poem Beowulf is one of the most important and influential pieces of literature in the world, Beowulf himself is a poorly written character when compared to characters of today’s standards. Beowulf is originally a Scandinavian story from a period before written records. It recounts the adventures of the brave and honorable Beowulf as he kills various monsters. Though, toRead MoreFemale Characters in Beowulf Essay1278 Words   |  6 PagesComparison between Female Characters in Beowulf Beowulf, the Old English epic tells the story of one brave hero and his battles against evil monsters. The poem deals with mostly masculine elements like fight descriptions, depictions of armor and long inspiring speeches. However, the women characters in the epic also have important roles and they are far from being superficial, as it may seem at first. There are several female figures in Beowulf; this paper will focus on three of them- queen WealhtheowRead MoreBeowulf Essay : Beowulf 1473 Words   |  6 PagesHyunsu (John) Kim Prof. Hohl ENG2800 November 10, 2016 Beowulf Paper II The poem, Beowulf, explores its protagonist’s—Beowulf’s—heroism through a series of three increasingly difficult conflicts with Grendel; Grendel’s mother; and the dragon—, each of which exemplifies an aspect of the Anglo-Saxon heroic code. Beowulf’s first encounter with Grendel demonstrates the importance of reputation as a means of establishing one’s legacy, even beyond death; Beowulf’s triumph over the seemingly indomitableRead MoreEssay on Monsters and Men in Macbeth, Beowulf, Frankstien1179 Words   |  5 Pages Monsters and Men (Unit Paper) For ages, we have wondered what is the difference between monsters and men that make them who they are. What are the characteristics that define a monster? Typically it’s the bad guy, the person or thing that comes into the story just to cause massacre or stand in the protagonist’s way. On the other Men are just defined as people who are the opposite of evil. There can be multiple people in a story who can be characterized asRead MoreRethinking Gender And Space On Old English Literature877 Words   |  4 PagesGender and Space in Old English Literature Beowulf and The Wife’s Lament are written between 100 and 1600 centuries. There has been different interpretation of the poems, some, an attempt to fit the events in the poems into the 21st century which has led to distortions and misrepresentation especially of the female characters and their representation in these poems. According to Shari Horner, twentieth century critics have tried to read women in Beowulf particularly as garrulous, weak, and dispassionateRead MoreEssay on The Religious Context of Beowulf629 Words   |  3 Pagesspeculation over the religious context of the poem Beowulf. Many believe that Beowulf was written to be strictly a Pagan tale, yet some insist that there is a subtle but definite theme of Christianity that outlines the poem. Although it is tough to decipher the actual intensions of religious outlook in Beowulf, (not having discovered the true author) it is safe to conclude that both Pagan and Christian components are established within the text . Beowulf was originally thought of as a Pagan tale whichRead MoreThe Religious Themes Of The Epic Of Beowulf1485 Words   |  6 PagesIn Beowulf, two types of religion are portrayed by one unknown author, and play an important role in the interpretation of the epic poem. Paganism is one of the religions that are portrayed in the epic, and it is speculated that before it was written and recorded that the work was actually focused around a Pagan belief system before the Christian coloring and allusions were added. Christianity is the second religion being portrayed in this Epic Poem. It is theorized that a monk was the one that addedRead MoreEssay On Shakespeare s Beowulf 1346 Words   |  6 PagesHaddijatou Konateh Beowulf paper Dr. Murray ENGL 2111 October 19th, 2015 Role of Women in Beowulf Beowulf was an epic written more than twelve hundred years ago. Women characters are presented, and every woman has one-of-a-kind attributes. The women in Beowulf are depicted as hard working people, each of whom has a role within the poem. Throughout the epic, distinctive women do things such as serve mead, give speeches, and take care of the mead-hall. This shows how important women were to this culture

Get A Grip Tour free essay sample

Aerosmith: Get a Grip Tour I recently had the pleasure of seeing this band play at New York Citys Madison Square Garden. These 40+ rockers have been banging out hits since the 70s. Age hasnt slowed these guys down at all. Aerosmith opened with one of their more recent songs, Eat the Rich, which got the crowd singing (or should I say shouting) in perfect unison. This was followed by one of their numerous classics, Toys in the Attic. Other songs that made the concert memorable were Draw the Line, Sweet Emotion, The Other Side, Love in an Elevator, Cryin,' and Janies Got a Gun. Although the majority of the aforementioned songs are off their last two albums, Aerosmith provides a good enough mix for both old and new fans. The only prop Aerosmith used was a white curtain wrapped around them for the opening. The lights did the rest during the show. We will write a custom essay sample on Get A Grip Tour or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The band definitely doesnt need any help at this stage in their career. Lead singer Steven Tylers on-stage antics during and in-between songs gave off so much energy that one could easily mistake him for a 20-year-old. The guitar chemistry between Joe Perry and Brad Witford was amazing in itself on tape, but the fact that it was phenomenal live, too was rare and unique. Both have progressed so much since the very first album, Perry with his inventive, emotional guitar solos and Witford with his strong, articulate rhythms. The balance between Joey Kramer (drums) and Tom Hamilton (bass) provided an outstanding basis for the rest of the band, but this was done in such a way that they stood out just as much as everyone else. This experienced rhythm section knew when to lay back and when to come right up to the forefront with everyone else. The end seemed to come too soon even though Aerosmith played for two hours straight. The encore opened and ended with classics. Dream On was the opener and Walk This Way finished the set off. Aerosmith was definitely one of the best concerts that I have ever seen, if not the best. . Review by N. P., New City, NY

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Summary junk food free essay sample

Mark Bittman, in his 2011 article, â€Å"Is Junk Food Really Cheaper? † says that American people think fast food is cheaper than real food and they use this point to explain why so many of them are overweight. However, he believes that’s not true because junk food is actually more expensive than real food. The average cost of a fast food meal is around $12 per person. On the other hand, home cooked meals might cost around $10 per four people. Some people say the fast food could be cheaper if it is weighted by the calorie, but that also isn’t a way to price the food according to Bittman because the home cooked meal could have more calories by adding natural sources (paras. 1-3). Money isn’t a guide for what people eat, either. As Bittman states even poor people could have real food with a small amount of money. The author mentions, the time isn’t either because the people who drive to fast food restaurants could drive to any supermarket to buy their stuff to cook, but the fact is some people are lazy and they don’t want to cook. We will write a custom essay sample on Summary junk food or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Also, some people don’t accept others’ advice to cook at home (paras. 5-7). The author believes that eating fast food isn’t just related to money and time, but it gets people addicted to eating it, which make it harder to stop because the fast food industry mix chemicals with it. Bittman explains those chemicals make the taste of fast food and people addicted to having them. A study in 2009 showed that eating a lot of fast food affects the brain. Also, the fast food industry leads people to eat fast food more and more because that makes people feel pleasure when they eat it (paras. 8-10). Bittman confirms there are five fast food restaurants for each supermarket in the United States. All those supermarkets increase the fresh food price by 40% and decrease soda and manufactured food by 30% to increase their restaurant benefits. On the other hand, those supermarkets have done that to force people to eat fast food projects (para. 8). To have better lives, Bittman advises people to change their eating habits. Making this change will require to work both culture and political. People have already done this before to change the tobacco settlement limited in 1998. Certainly, this change will not be something hard to make. People will alone have to work together (paras. 11-14).

Wednesday, April 15, 2020

College Essay Examples - How to Format Your Essay in Zip File Format

College Essay Examples - How to Format Your Essay in Zip File FormatThere are many college essay examples that are easy to apply, but not everyone will know how to write a college essay in zip file format. In this article we will take a look at some of the different types of formats that can be used for a college essay. We will also discuss some tips that can be used to make the task much easier.If you are unsure about the difference between files and folders, they are very similar but with slight differences. You will also find that there are several different types of files that you may need to use when writing your essay.Many college essay examples will tell you that it is best to use Microsoft Word because it is free. The main reason that Word is used is because it is used by so many people. Word can also be very good if you find that you do not like the layout that you find in some other programs. It is important to note that you can always purchase an alternative program but it may cost you more than Word.Another format that is often used is the zip file format. You will find that a lot of students are looking for something that is easy to access and print out. This is often where students can get around having to download the zip file because it is already available. One problem with this format is that it is often harder to read so it may take more work for you to understand what is going on.One format that is gaining in popularity is the text file format. This is basically a text file that has been converted into a format that is able to be read by a word processor. It can be much easier to read than the zip file format. You will find that most college writers prefer to use this format because it is very easy to read and will save you a lot of time.There are a few college essay examples that will still recommend using the zip file format because it is still widely used by students. What this means is that you will find that many students are still look ing for something that is easy to use and can save time. However, when it comes to formatting your document there are many other formats that you will be able to use. This will all depend on the style of the writer that you are.Students do not want to have to struggle when they are trying to get their essays out to someone for the first time. They need to feel that they are getting ready for the first time but without having to worry about how to format the document. It is important to be able to format the document to match the style of the writer so that they will be able to understand what is going on and how to format the document to meet the requirements of the essay.You should always consider the layout of the essay before you begin. There are a few different types of styles that you will need to consider. This will make it a lot easier for you to format the document and you will be able to get the job done right the first time.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Information on Writing an Essay on Registerd Nurse in North Carolina

Information on Writing an Essay on Registerd Nurse in North CarolinaWith all the training and education you've received as a Registered Nurse, it can be a bit overwhelming to sit down and write an essay on registered nurse in North Carolina. In this article, we'll discuss some tips for writing the essay.When preparing to write an essay on registered nurse in North Carolina, you should have a theme ideas. Consider whether you're going to be discussing the exciting career of working as a Registered Nurse in North Carolina. For example, are you going to cover work, travel, and house calls?The information you are going to present should include the advantages of the position. Who or what are the benefits of becoming a Registered Nurse?Make sure you include a very important fact. First, explain why you chose to become a nurse. In addition, you should consider how much fun you want to have when doing your job.Your essay should always be entertaining. You should tell about your skills and a bilities so readers can get a sense of what you are capable of.How long do you want to work at nursing-care facilities? Are you considering leaving in a year or less? In that case, consider writing about the stress that you feel working at home or while traveling.Ask yourself if there are any disadvantages to working in hospitals or clinics as a Registered Nurse. Try to add a little humor in your essay if it is possible.In conclusion, when you're preparing to write an essay on registered nurse in North Carolina, remember to consider the theme you're going to use. Also, consider how you want to share some information about yourself.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Approaching the Methods of Development and Process of Writing an Essay

Approaching the Methods of Development and Process of Writing an EssayWhile discussing the methods of development and process of writing an essay, it is not possible to present all the techniques. However, you can make use of some basic steps to give your essay a unique and a personal touch. These steps can make the difference between a good essay and an excellent essay.First, you have to choose the topic of your essay. This can be done in many ways. You can choose any topic you want such as the current events, your hobbies, movies, favorite books, or other relevant topics that you want to discuss.The next step is to work on developing a theme for your essay. This can be done by researching topics related to the topic you chose.After you have chosen the topic, you should analyze how you want to present it. You can do this by outlining your writing style and grammar, as well as any embellishments you would like to add.By doing this, you will find that the best way to write an essay is through a flow. A flow is basically the manner of forming paragraphs. Once you have begun to flow, you will find that it is easy to write concisely.When you are done with this step, you can focus on developing a structure for your essay. This may include inserting paragraphs, defining the topics, explaining the relationship between them, presenting your arguments, and ending the paragraph. If you find that you still do not have a good structure, ask your instructor to help you out.When you finish writing your essay, you should finish with a sentence. Although the first sentence in your essay is important, if you are unsure of what to write, you can always ask for assistance from your instructor. When you have finished, you will find that it has a unique voice that is unique to you.

Online Student Alumni System free essay sample

This will solve the communication problem between school, the alumni and placement officer and the alumni. Alumni in Patters Catholic Highlights can easily access this through the use of the internet. In order to achieve this objective, the developers have developed a module that will allow users to chat with each other. Also the developers developed a form in the website that will allow them to post topics in the forums section. * To design and develop a module that will help the alumni update their personal profile, their information and their current job status online to make it accessible even without them spending much time and effort. The developers designed and developed a module that will help the alumni to update their profiles online. This can help them lessen the time in doing this ruminations because they can access the system even when they are working. The developers developed a module that allows the user to display their contact information and status. We will write a custom essay sample on Online Student Alumni System or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Website interface The website interface is the users view see when the website is visited. The developed system has different structures such as homes, about us, forum, announcements, gallery, members, and joins us.Home Home is the main page of the website. It consists of login, register, estimate and the latest news and events. About us This contains all the information about the school alumni association. These are the history, board of director, mission, vision and the contact us. Announcements This contains all the announcements, news, upcoming events and activities posted by the alumni and placement officer. Gallery This contains the photos of activities which involve the alumni of the said school. Profile This contains all the information regarding the alumni.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

How to Write an Informative Essay on Art in Late Antiquity

How to Write an Informative Essay on Art in Late Antiquity If you need help with writing an informative essay on art in late antiquity, below is a quick writing guide. Creating your informative essay on art in late antiquity is not as difficult as many students think. It frames the research paper, but differs from it a great deal. When you are working with an informative essay on art in late antiquity type assignment, the first thing you should do is to think about a proper topic. Using brainstorming techniques can help you to narrow down a potential topic. You will have to use a brainstorming method to narrow down your focus to something feasible. Depending upon the required length of your informative essay on art in late antiquity and the subject you may have to be careful not to select a topic which is too broad. You can focus on one particular time, person, place, group, or event to otherwise narrow down the topic that you have. Instead of writing about the medias influence upon female body image you can narrow down your research paper to the impact of fashion magazine advertisements for adolescent body image. Once your topic has been narrowed down to something more manageable you will be up to focus on a particular type, time, or person or place. If you need to write a larger informative essay on art in late antiquity and you have to broaden your topic you may need to include information that makes it possible to cover 20 pages or more. If you are writing about a particular event, person, or subject you may be able to expand your topic by including additional people, places, events, or groups. Successfully composing your informative essay on art in late antiquity begins with starting the writing process early. Just because you do not think that you are ready to begin the writing process does not mean that you should avoid it. Sometimes the simple act of writing something down helps you to get into the exploration and discovery which will lead to improved draft writing. Additional Tips: Do not limit yourself to writing your introduction first. Many students worry that they have to be in with the introduction because it is the first part of their research paper. But this is not true. The sooner you start on your writing, the easier it will be to get into it, even if you will need multiple revisions. If you need three informative body paragraphs and you only have the one you want to include last, start writing that paragraph. You do not have to write the informative essay in the order it will be presented to the reader. Hope this guide will help you get the most out of your assignment. We also offer to your attention 10 facts for an informative essay on art in late antiquity and 20 subtopics plus 1 sample essay for additional help.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Child Development Junk Food Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Child Development Junk Food - Essay Example Increasing rate of obesity, lower IQ, excessive use of artificial flavours, and the increasing rate of heart diseases, excessive blood pressure, and diabetes and cholesterol variations among the children give warning about the dangers of junk foods and it underlines the fact that junk foods have an effect on natural growth of children and it creates barriers in development process. Excessive use of junk foods affect development process and some studies endow with evidence that a considerable rate of difference in IQ level between children who practiced fast foods and children consumed vegetables and fruits. Jenny Hope rightly remarks; â€Å"Children who eat more chips, crisps, biscuits and pizza before the age of three have a lower IQ five years later, a study showed† (Hope, 2011). Young children who followed junk foods forced to accept more fat in their body and they get few vitamins and nutrients. Consequently, their brain never develops to optimum level. Children having low er IQ level show poor academic performance in their learning activities. Sooner or later, they feel practical problems in acquiring various skills like critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, listening, speaking, reading and writing. In case of physical health, junk foods put in severe health problems such as, obesity, depression, diabetes, and heart diseases. Generally, fast foods contain excessive amount of artificial flavours, colours, preservatives and other chemicals. All the above mentioned chemicals are not useful for human body. In addition, a child’s body is not capable to handle these chemicals. Development in scientific technology provides new facilities for cooking and these technological changes often forced the people to create a new food habit. â€Å"These innovations contributed to a shift away from home-cooked meals toward processed food, thus increasing obesity† (Paxon, 2006, p.71). Healthcare officials and doctors have forced to practice improved diet through consuming fresh fruits, vegetables and grains. Obesity and related overweight problems create critical health problems in a child’s life. It negatively affects child’s academic performances as well as physical growth. A recent study reports that approximately 30 percent of North American children are obese. The report also mentions that â€Å"In general, children eat too much, and much of what they eat is unhealthy† (Health in Motion, 2008). Unlike North American children, immigrant children consume few processed foods and eat more fresh foods and vegetables. As a result, immigrant children always keep better performance in their health than other children. Another significant problem is that junk foods have been connected to cholesterol and it paves the way for high blood pressure because of excessive sodium content. High blood pressure increases the possibility of heart strokes and related heart diseases. Overwhelming use of processed fo ods creates barriers in the process of digestion and human body always forced to spend maximum energy for digestion. Discussions about the value of junk foods have acquired serious attention among the doctors as well as in media. Consumers are not aware about the quality of these processed foods and often used worst items. Producers of fast foods used high amount of sugar content which gives unusual fat in human body. The online article entitled; Eating Junk Food

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Affordable Custom Writing Service - Why You Should Hire an Affordable Custom Writing Service

Affordable Custom Writing Service - Why You Should Hire an Affordable Custom Writing ServiceMost writers have had experiences with expensive custom writing services. It is sad that more than a few writers have had to use expensive services to get what they wanted done. At least when you hire an affordable custom writing service, you can save yourself some money and not have to suffer through unnecessary hassles of waiting and poor work.When I was a beginner in the writing business, I used to be so frustrated by the prohibitive costs associated with costly custom writing services. I had a lot of time and energy, so why didn't I save some of that to write what I really wanted to? Well, it seemed like everyone else could write what they wanted too, so I couldn't do it.What made me realize I could save time and money by using an affordable custom writing service is my experience with a non-profit organization. There was an agency out of the city that specialized in a specific topic for m e. The agency tried to charge me whatever they could, but I was able to get the exact style and format I wanted for my site.So the question is, why should you use an affordable custom writing service? Here are some good reasons. I'll explain.First, because professional services can sometimes cost a lot more than affordable services. You might find it easier to get your site created or want to add a website to your resume, or have your articles published for free online, or simply want to submit an article for publication in the local paper. You want to use a professional service to get you done.Second, most professional services are cheap because they already have experienced professionals doing the work for them. They have tried to get you the most professional style and quality work they can so you won't be disappointed with the end product. You can look into how much these services cost in advance and make sure you don't waste money. You can also tell if the service is capable of providing the quality of work you need.In the end, it boils down to how much you can spend and how much time you want to invest on each job. Remember, if you get the right kind of work, you will make more money.

Friday, February 7, 2020

Research Paper Topics - You Can Use This To Set Up Your Paper

Research Paper Topics - You Can Use This To Set Up Your PaperResearch papers are important, but they can be hard to come up with. Here are some tips to help you have a good time coming up with research paper topics.First of all, you should write your research paper topics in a way that it makes sense to the readers of the paper. If the information is not easy to understand, then there will be little chance that you will come up with a good conclusion to the paper. People don't like to read boring, dry, and uninteresting information.Think about the target audience and who they are. You want to give them enough information that they understand what you are trying to convey. Consider the audience when writing the paper. Consider what the research paper topic is about, if it is about a particular topic or a certain topic.You should also think about the types of questions you will ask in your research paper topics. In order to get all the information in the paper, you must give the reader something to think about and weigh in the conclusion.You should also think about certain topics that will fit into the style of the paper. This can sometimes be difficult to do, especially since you may not know which type of paper you are looking for. Most students hate doing this kind of research paper, but it is necessary. You need to write a research paper in such a way that it fits in the style of the paper.To come up with research paper topics, you need to be patient. You will have to sit down and think about what topics will interest your readers. When you sit down to plan the research paper, you will be more motivated to come up with the information and topics that you want to write.For those who are doing research papers on topics that they do not care about, you may consider doing research paper topics that the reader of the paper does not care about. However, this can be an uphill battle since many people will not agree with the content of the paper.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Persuasive Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Persuasive - Research Paper Example s that the policy and rules regarding treating a young offender as an adult should be revived and, besides some public defender offices have launched and started a few novel programs too, likewise the advantages that are woven with this agenda are not only economical or equitable, but ethical/ moral and environmental. Initiating with the solution, the Bureau of Justice Assistance has posted suggestions for the designing and implementation of these new programs. All these various programs are driven to conceal the children who have, intentionally or unintentionally, committed felony from facing the prosecution in an adult court. This however, does not at all means that the young offender will be rescued from their act, but to deal with it in a way a juvenile should be dealt with, rather than imposing them on an intimidating and a daunting environment of an adult court. In addition to tis, the chief thing among all this execution of programs is that children be assist by the multidisciplinary personnel of which the attorney is one associate, and that the corresponding personnel will speak on behalf of the child from the beginning to the end (Allard & Young et al. 2002). Nonetheless, establishing programs to produce representative of the child is not enough; instead the history of the child and his life and circumstances surrounding him at the time of crime should be extensively analyzed. If and when the examination of the violation and the juvenile will be done, information that can help solves the case easily without taking it to the adult court (Allard & Young et al 2002). For instance, a fifteen year old had been sexually as well as physically abused in the house by his step-father and later during the time of act by the step-father and in order to save himself, the child kills him. Here, taking the child to be prosecuted in an adult court without examining his history and the circumstance during the time of killing can have a very adverse effect on the child,

Whats Truly Happening with Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper

What's Truly Happening with Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper - Dead or Alive? In fact, many topics for research papers are much too big for a couple pages. After looking for extra information you may find the full breakdown of the topic you're interested in and on what you've gathered the full data that could cover you topic. Without a suitable content, excellent research paper topics don't make sense. Deciding upon the proper research topic is quite often an intimidating job, particularly for PhD students. If you should write only 1 paper at the conclusion of the period, you can breathe out as you are blessed. A paper is always simpler to write if you're interested in the subject, and you're going to be more motivated to do in-depth research and compose a paper that truly covers the full subject. You desire a focused topic that will produce a superior paper. To compose an outstanding paper, you should thoroughly select your topic. In any event, provided that you're encouraged and invested in this issue, it is going to be a very good paper. After you get a new topic, analyze your choice again and make certain it is strong enough for a complete paper. If your topic is too broad, you won't have the ability to focus your paper since there is simply too much info to cover. Possessing an intriguing topic also makes the paper simpler to write. Understanding Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper In that instance, you can select another from the list. You are searching for a topic that has lots of available material for you to use. In the event you pick a highly substantial topic but there aren't any sources accessible to collect data you're heading yourself in a huge difficulty. Writing a research paper even though may appear challenging is a considerable portion of normal student life. Magnitude of the Task If you're writing a research paper in history, you need to appreciate the size of the task ahea d. So even when you're not thrilled about writing a research paper in a necessary course, if you consider your own interests and the way they connect to the class, you will be able to chance upon a topic. You may be keen on doing a specific research paper. however, it is important to discover whether it suits the level at which you're studying at right now. Definitions of Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper If you're confused with a selection of interesting topics to research online, it's far better to choose what interests you the most. Regional topics are good to work on if they're about the area in which you live otherwise it is going to be costly to perform a research on such topic. Any research paper ought to be based on the investigations which were made before. Anyway, fantastic research paper topics should produce the research and writing processes relevantly simple. When it has to do with working on research papers, you've got to consider about what it is that you're likely to become out of your topics. All research papers have a certain intent. You wouldn't wish to start research simply to learn your topic is not a really superior fit. After the topic is chosen, it would be useful to make an outline so you could see whether you have sufficient information for good-structured research paper. You also need to consider your research topic based by how complicated or otherwise difficult it may be. On occasion a research topic may be very detailed but also one which you feel deserves to be simplified. What to Do About Topics to Choose from for a Research Paper Another thing to notice is that there has to be adequate resources either online or offline concerning the topic. After you have settled on the subject, you should underline the narrow direction to which your article is going to be devoted to. Once you have selected your topic, be certain you may add something interesting and expand it. You have to be certain to understand everything clearly once you opt for an essay topic. Keep on reading to discover ideas for a few of the most common global small business research topic tips that you can use and make your very own, distinctive and productive research paper. Make the usage of the suggested research paper topic ideas and you'll be prosperous. Before beginning, learn more about the way to perform a psychology experiment. Locating a topic for your study can be hard, but there are many great strategies to produce intriguing ideas.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The Number One Article on Moral Ethics Essay Topics

The Number One Article on Moral Ethics Essay Topics According to Kant, it's the duty of a person to act according to a particular set of principles and to exhibit great morals. The value of ethics cannot be undermined. You could possibly be assigned to compose the ethics in society essay, professional or health care spheres and so forth. Currently philosophers attempt to chat about ethics according to three principal approaches. The elaboration could be either the entire element of ethics, just discussing the many parts that come together or part of the larger picture called ethics that are connected with people in a particular community or a particular society. If you feel as though you are stuck with your ethics essay, you may want to use the guidance of professional writers. Most ethics essay usually expect you the writer to have a stand concerning the topic available. It's much better to draft your principal argument. At any time you compose an ethics essay about a present issue like rape, it's imperative that you generate a very clear and concise introduction for your article. If your topic is racism, don't just speak about racism, speak about the racism in a particular country or within a definite period. Moral Ethics Essay Topics - the Story Vagueness of the moral issues might be tricky matter to accept, because many folks would prefer to get all grounds to know theirs is the only correct answer. The question remains whether we can come across clients who think like that too and are prepared to pay somewhat more to achieve that. You should make an effort to think about the present issue that has not yet been covered by other people. The issue, nevertheless, is that often terminally ill folks aren't capable of ending their life in a painless, dignified fashion, and for that reason require the assistance of a relative of close friend. Fo r instance, you can talk about the reasons that cause the degree of racism in a specific country. The most important idea of your work needs to be put at the conclusion of the introduction. You must be scientific because the problem of the moral code is a social manifestation. The major plot develops the major intent. What Does Moral Ethics Essay Topics Mean? In your ethics composition, it is going to allow narrowing down the subject of research. What makes your dissertation writing have quality is not just the topic you select, but in addition the group of writer you partner with. The multiple topics might be found, for instance, in the dissertation abstracts international database. A topic of your composition is among the essential facets of a thriving composition. Enlightenment is a wide concept that embodies overlapping aspects from the exact same general perspective. Writing a superb persuasive essay is not an easy job, however, it's achievable. It's not essential to create the last variant of your thesis simultaneously. Facts, Fiction and Moral Ethics Essay Topics Be certain that you are being very specific in your private statement. Obviously, it's important to re-read the finished document to steer clear of errors. Business ethics are extremely crucial in the daily running of the company. Now you have your scores back, there are lots of things you ought to be doing. It's evident your readers will originate from various diversities. Various folks have various opinions concerning precisely the same rules and norms of behavior. Studies have consistently found that religious individuals are less inclined to participate in criminal behaviour, marital infidelity, alcoholism, unprotected sexual activity in addition to being more likel y to participate in good social behaviours like volunteerism and charity. When you're assigned a composition in ethics, you will most likely write about a few moral norms people follow. Upon seeing that people don't share the very same moral beliefs across the world, several have concluded just that. A lot of people have the opinion that an internet education, is not of the identical quality as traditional education. The tradition is illegal in Thailand though it is openly practiced throughout the nation. Be certain to take a look at the schools that you want to apply to for potential scholarships!

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Foreign Literature Essay Example for Free

Foreign Literature Essay Last night I was at the presentation of the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize, at the National Portrait Gallery, where a young Angolan writer, Josà © Eduardo Agualusa, was announced the 2007 winner for his novel The Book of Chameleons, translated from the Portuguese by Daniel Hahn. Set in contemporary Angola, the book is particularly notable for being narrated by a lizard. The judges this year were the poet David Constantine, writer and editor Jennie Erdal, Arts Council Literature officer Kate Griffin, novelist Ali Smith and the literary editor of the Independent, Boyd Tonkin. Admirably the prize is shared between the translator and author, thus honouring an art that often goes unsung. The book was evidently a popular choice and Agualusa received his award in person, accompanied by whoops and cheers. Tonkin extols the prize as a unique bridge between writers abroad and readers at home. As thrilled as I was that this talented newcomer beat such literary heavyweights as Ismail Kadare and Javier Marà ­as, however, I was even more delighted that the award honours a small literary publisher, Arcadia, who recently celebrated their 10th anniversary. The dedicated team at Arcadia are worthy recipients of this prestigious award, not just for bringing this imaginative young writer to an English readership, but overall for their championing of cultural diversity and for widening our literary choice 50% of their 2007 lists are books in translation. Given the effects of globalisation elsewhere, it seems astonishing that we dont translate more foreign literature in this country. Apparently, translated fiction accounts for only 3% of fiction sales in the UK, compared with 30-40% in France or Spain. The British are voracious readers, so why are we so insular? Dont we welcome unusual voices and different perspectives? How can we exert pressure on publishers to produce more translated fiction? For those interested in foreign literature, an excellent resource is Words Without Borders, an online magazine dedicated to promoting international exchange through translation and publishing works/extracts on the web. And if youd like to see Josà © Eduardo Agualusa and Daniel Hahn, theyll be reading from The Book of Chameleons this evening at Foyles bookshop, London, 6.30pm 8.30pm.

Monday, January 20, 2020

English Story :: essays papers

English Story Hello my name is rage, you are probably thinking just about now that who named this girl. Well I have always had that question on my mind as well. From what I remember about my childhood (which I might add is not much) is mostly living in this house with about thirty other kids that did not have parents either and we lived off our worldwide drug Elate, bread and water. I was told from the older kids that my mother dropped me off there one day she told the kids that she had been diagnosed with AIDS, and she was going to murder herself. So my best friend her name was Sky, she was one of the older kids and she took care of me for my early years. I lived there until I was about 16, then I moved in with Jeremy, my boyfriend and started a family. Anyway back to our drug Elate, you may have an idea what this drug is I have no idea if it will sill exist when you receive this letter or you may have never heard of the drug before. So let me explain. It is what I have heard that people used to call "cocaine" or something in that form. And I have also heard that people used to actually pay for this stuff, and used to go in "jail" if they were caught with it or on it. Well now a day it is completely different, we have to be on it twenty-four hours a day, seven times a week, etc. The drug Elate, it brings all the others and me such a high, and has got me through some pretty bad times in my life. You already know my mother died from it, using the needle method, and I presume my father did also; that is why we start our lives so early in this society. The older kids have prepared us that our lives only last about forty years, if we are lucky. But forty years of being high; that is the way I want to live my life. Who really like's reality in the first place. The only down sides of this drug are my nose hurts all the time and I do not really sleep, nor eat much, the drug make me feel full. It is our choice weather we want to sniff the stuff or inject it or do both. I personally switch with both methods every few months. The one thing that I do not do is share needles, that is the huge down side

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Alexander Mcqueen 2

Jane Wang Second draft research paper Jul 30h, 2012 Alexander McQueen â€Å"Creativity is a very fragile thing, and Lee was very fragile,† said the milliner Philip Treacy, who had worked with Alexander McQueen. McQueen, a British genius fashion designer creating a large amount of provocative works in last two decades, committed a suicide because of the suicide of Isabella Blow and the loss of his mother, who were two important supporters of his design (Wilson 89). The â€Å"Spine† Corset, the Skull Scarf, and the â€Å"Bumster† skirt are the representative of the collections of his provocative and dark romantic beauty.McQueen always indicated the dark and deathly elements in his collections, critiqued â€Å"inanity† of the fashion world and expressed his personal life reflections in fashion design. He was the chief designer of Givenchy between 1996 and 2001 and earned British Designer of the Year awards four times(1996,1997,2001 and 2003) (Wilson 89). In t erms of McQueen’s intricate tailoring and provocative design styles, McQueen was significantly influenced by Gilbert Adrian, and Elsa Schiaparelli in the aesthetic aspect; Charles Frederick Worth had processing influences on McQueen's.Adrian and Schiaparelli were fashion designers prevalent around 1930s and 19040s and Worth was popular in in early 19th century. In McQueen’s collections, he applies Gothic Romance with pure black and complex lace ornamentations. His collections focus on the expression of his feelings and moods; it can be scary, disgusting, and romantic. McQueen is like a poet who uses clothing to write his poetry. His runways can always make viewers think, but not just enjoy the visual elements of clothes. Suzy Menkes says of McQueen’s works, â€Å"Distasteful images?But it’s a reflection of our nasty world. And a powerful fashion designer always ingests the ether of modern times. † (Bolton 12). To me, McQueen’s runway shows a re more like drama to convey McQueen’s savage and animalist beauty and death philosophy for fashion. In McQueen’s work, he indicates orientalism, classicism and English eccentrics, but also shows many clues for the future of fashion. As Eric Wilson said in 2010, â€Å"As designers have done for centuries, Mr. McQueen altered the shape of the body using corsetry and anatomically corrects breastplates as a recurring motif.More recently, his work took on increasingly futuristic tones, with designs that combined soft draping with molding, or ones in which a dress seemed to morph into a coat. At his last show, in October, the models wore platform shoes that looked like the hulls of ships. † (Wilson 1). According to the interview with Andrew Bolton, author of â€Å"Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty†, Bolton offers clues of designers affecting McQueen’s aesthetic. Bolton says, â€Å"In terms of tailoring, McQueen was most influenced by designers whose tec hnical acumen mirrored his own, designers such as Gilbert Adrian and Elsa Schiaparelli. (Interview 1). After I saw Schiaparelli fashion exhibition, I found many direct Schiaparelli design concepts' influences on Alexander McQueen's contemporary collections. Schiaparelli invented culottes, wrapped turbans, Arab breeches, embroidered shirts, pompom-brimmed hats, and barbaric belts ( Smith 1). I think her Skeleton, Lobster, and Tear Dresses have the most obvious influences on McQueen's fashion design, where he also employs a lot of animal elements to express a kind of savage and original beauty.As McQueen himself explains, â€Å"Nature was the greatest, or at least the most enduring, influence upon me. Everything I do is connected to nature in one way or another; Nature was also a central theme, if not the central theme, of romanticism. † (Bolton 15). Take two similar fashion designs from Schiaparelli and McQueen, The Skeleton Dress (Fig 1) and â€Å"Spine† Corset (Fig 2) . Obviously, in both works, two artists utilize a â€Å"backbone† as a key element in their works. They both look scary and savage.In Schiaparelli's work, she employs silk to create a backbone effect, while McQueen changes material to a kind of metal, which strengthen the bones' lines and shock effect. Schiaparelli just uses pure black in this collection. Similarly, McQueen just applies the metal's original color in his design, which is quite concise. Like Schiaparelli, McQueen also tightens the waist to indicate the silhouette of the body. Unlike Elsa's slight decoration of the spine, McQueen extends the human spine to a kind of animal spine with the coccyx.Therefore, it is a good example to exemplify the Schiaparelli's design influences on McQueen's. Because of Bolton’s mention of McQueen’s tailoring influence from Gilbert Adrian, let us take a look at their previous works. Like Adrian's women's suit, McQueen's women's suit always has an exaggerated silhouette and the â€Å"s† pattern is obvious. McQueen also uses a lot of broad shoulders in suits; puffed sleeves were created by Adrian, which was popular in 1930s and 40s American fashion ( History). The huge puff-sleeve dress style is continued in McQueen's dress (Fig 4).Likewise, Adrian's dress â€Å"A version of the ‘Hostess Gown'† contains many puffed sleeves. They both create dresses with huge dress trains to express dresses' falling and floating. Due to the similarity between two designers' fashion style, I chose one work from Adrian and one from McQueen to make a specific comparison. If we take a look at Adrian’s film custom dressing (Fig 3) â€Å"A version of the ‘Hostess Gown'† compared with McQueen dress (Fig 4) from Autumn/winter 2010–11, both artists’ modern style and innovative silhouettes come through.In Adrian's work, he seems to employ silk to indicate a sense of freedom and flow. Similarly, McQueen uses translucent and light material to show the dancing-like movement of the dress. Like Adrian, McQueen also provides three perspectives of the dress, which looks like a dancing and swirling performer. Likewise, the dress hem of McQueen's was tailored freely and asymmetrically. Adrian just slightly tightens up the waist in this work, whereas the bodice is designed as an extremely tight style by McQueen.Unlike Adrian's concise decoration of flowers on the upper left shoulder of the dress, McQueen transforms patterns onto materials as decoration on the surface of the dress and added small puff-sleeve on the shoulder parts. Both works give the viewer a sense of flowing movement; nevertheless, McQueen accentuates the curved bodylines of the dress, which is imbued with a sense of elegance of a dancer and replaced the opaque material Adrian uses to a translucent material, which looks like the body of flowers to add more romantic feelings.McQueen not only shared similar tailoring ideas with other designers, but also the intricate and complex processes of dressmaking. Bolton also mentions, â€Å"In terms of dressmaking, he looked to designers who shared his sense of theatricality and his love of exaggerated silhouettes, such as Charles Frederick Worth, Christian Dior, and Charles James. † (Interview 1). Worth was an English fashion designer of the 19th century, and also considered as the Father of Haute couture, which is made for specific customer with high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn intricate decorations.If we juxtapose both McQueen and Worth's dressmaking works, they both are finished by the most experienced tailoring skills and hand-executed techniques. Especially, McQueen’s dressmaking reflects an aristocrtic style in palace of Middle 19th century, where the dresses had intricate Alencon lace decorations, expensive silk materials, bustles, tightened waists, and an embellished neckline. For example, looking at one of Worth’s evening dresses(fig 5), there are many obvious elements shared with a coat of dress from McQueen’s autumn/winter 2008 collections (fig 6).Both works have loose and puffed dress trains. In Worth's work, he employs corduroy in deep red color, which creates a solemn and elitist effect. Similarly, McQueen applies silk to red to express a figure of Queen. Like Worth, McQueen also cuts the shoulder parts of the dress with a puffed effect. However, McQueen repeats this effect in the neck part and strengthens it in the train of the dress. In terms of ornamentation, in Worth's dress, there are Alencon lace patterns in the upper back, while McQueen utilizes intricate metals and diamonds as head decorations, which looked like a Queen's crown.Indeed, the tailoring similarities between both designers are evident. However, McQueen updates the puffed sleeves with tightened wristbands to emphasize the 19th century aristocratic style. Without doubt, Alexander McQueen is a prolific and experienced fashion designer and his collections are multi-faced and cause viewers to think deeply. Even though he shared many similar aesthetics with other fashion designers, he recombined each tiny element he liked and produced novel, updated, â€Å"McQueen’s† work. As Bolton describes McQueen like a demonic Edward Scissor hands (Interview 1).Yes, I feel that McQueen is a devout Scissor hand. Although he received acrimonious critics of his provocative style, like the controversial Highland Rape, autumn/winter 1995–96, which even made viewers feel uncomfortable with the collections, he insisted on his own dark and death romance. Do you remember the character Helena in A Midsummer Night’s Dream? â€Å"Helena believes that love has the power to transform something ugly into something beautiful because love is propelled by subjective perceptions of the individual, not by objective assessments of appearance. (Bolton 12) I think this idea is central of McQueen’s collections, which breaks the viewer’s boundary between ugliness and beauty. His aesthetic purpose is to force viewers look at the ugliness, examine the dark part of their innermost beings and think about the savagery of nature. In addition, he updated Worth, Shiaparelli and Adrian's designs with modern styles, novel textile, complex hand-making processes, which follow up the contemporary fashion society. . [pic] (Fig 1) Elsa Schiaparelli.The Skeleton Dress. France. 1938. Silk crepe [pic] (Fig 2) Alexander McQueen. â€Å"Spine† Corset. Untitled. Spring/summer. 1998 [pic] (Fig 3) Gilbert Adrian, â€Å"A version of the ‘Hostess Gown' †, 1930's and 40's [pic] (Fig 4) Alexander McQueen (British, 1969–2010). Dress. Autumn/winter 2010–11. [pic] (Fig 5) Charles Frederick Worth (French, Bourne 1825–1895 Paris). Evening Dress. 1893-95 [pic] (Fig 6) Alexander McQueen. Untitled. Autumn/winter. 2008 Works Cited Bolton, Andrew and Koda Harold.Savage Beauty. New York: The M etropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. Print. History Wired Gilbert Adrian. National Museum of American History. Jan 2010. Web. 19 Jul 2012. Interview with Andrew Bolton, author of ‘Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty’. Yale University Press. 5 May. 2011. Web. 19 Jul. 2012. Smith, Roberta. DESIGN REVIEW: For a Body that Nobody Ever Had. NY: The New York Times. Dec 7, 2001. Print. Wilson, Eric and Horyn, Cathy. â€Å"Alexander McQueen, Designer, Is Dead at 40. † New York Times Feb 2010: 89. Web.