Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 1 Theme: unexpectedness of love Falling in love with Robert and his returning of her love came as a great surprise to Elizabeth, considering past her circumstances. Analysis: Reworks the traditional sonnet sequence by transforming gender roles. She utilities the female voice instead of the traditional male voice. She assumes the role of epic hero. She adopts the patrician sonnet style. The octet's strict rhyming pattern reflects how she feels her life has been static so far.The sextet's alternating near rhymes modulate from move' to Ã¢â¬Ëstrove' to Ã¢â¬Ëlove' reflecting gradual emotional and spiritual pavement as a result of discovering this unexpected love. The distortion of iambic pentameter reflects the distorted and enharmonic patterns of her own life. B uses past tense show how Joy escapes her- Ã¢â¬Ëonce' Ã¢â¬Ësung'. The brevity of Ã¢â¬Ëonce' suggests that this kind of love Is fleeting. Ã¢â¬ËOnce' also has fairytale associations Ã¢â ¬Ëonce upon a time' which suggests that love for her Is a myth.She utilities the classical Greek reference (allusion) to Theocratic whose poem suggested that every year of life brought new happiness with it. This allusion evokes the original pastoral tradition from Sicily and implicitly allows a world of classical Italian paganism (and potential sexuality) Into the world of Victorian poetry. Creates a dramatic effect by using enjambment to set off a phrase at the beginning of the sestets. Volta, (Italian: Ã¢â¬Å"turnÃ¢â¬ ) the turn in thought in a sonnet that is often indicated by such initial words as But, Yet, or And yet. The Volta occurs between the octet and sestets in a Patriarchal sonnet.Here the thought continues from line 8 to 9. This suggests that the melancholy blends itself across all aspects of her life. That she remembers the poem as being Ã¢â¬Ësung' (past tense) also suggests that armory and sweetness have not been a part of her life's journey. Listing the sweet y ears, the dear and wished for years' Ã¢â¬ËThe sweet ,sad years, the melancholy years'. This again emphasizes how much Joy and beauty she has missed out on and how much she has suffered Ã¢â¬Ëantique tongue' classical adjectival reference, could suggest these notions are foreign to her Just as an antique language is or that this happiness could only be found in the past. Lung' powerful and Jarring verb. Browning feels that fate has powerfully Ã¢â¬Ëshadow she is now an image of her former self due to the illness, offering and oppression she has been through OR darkness has spread, there is no light of hope in her life. Ã¢â¬Ëmystic Shape' capitalizes-shape is personified. Mystic meansÃ¢â¬ spiritually allegorical, pertaining to mysteries of faith,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"pertaining to occult practices or ancient religionsÃ¢â¬ SoÃ¢â¬ ¦ This shape is foreign to her Ã¢â¬Ëshape' Ã¢â¬Å"creation, form, destiny,Ã¢â¬ from root of shape (v. )). Meaning Ã¢â¬Å"contours of the bodyÃ¢â¬ is attested from late ICC. Meaning Ã¢â¬Å"condition, stateÃ¢â¬ is first recorded 1865, Aimer. Eng.In M. E. , the word also had a sense of Ã¢â¬Å"a woman's private parts. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëhair' :An allusion to Homer's Iliad. Epic which begins with Athena pulling Achilles by the hair. Divine intervention by the Gods. EBB could see Borrowing's love for her as divine intervention. Her allusion to Homer's epic subtly suggests that there is something heroic and brave about this romantic engagement. The gender dynamic of this allusion should not be overlooked. At the opening of the Iliad Achilles and Agamemnon are contending over who will get to keep a captive female in his tent-an odd and interesting allusion for the beginning of feminine love sonnets.In Barrett Browning;s revision of this scene, the desiring female speaker assumes the position of epic hero. Pulled away from destructive, seductive thoughts of death, she engages with the emotional risks of love when the conditions seem t o glorify her as much as her beloved; thus the speaker is both the subject and object of love, revising without entirely reversing the Perchance tradition in which the woman is a silent object of admiration. This allusion to homer's epic, as well as the heroic sonnet form, subtly suggests that there is something brave and heroic about this romantic engagement.Fate is symbolized as a woman constantly turning. Her hair had to be grabbed while he was facing you. Allusion to a A children's game. The sestets is based on a children's game of the time in which one child would creep up behind another, grab her hair and ask: Ã¢â¬Å"Guess who it is? Ã¢â¬ The poet compares falling in love to this game. She suggests than when the strange feeling (of love) metaphorically Ã¢â¬Å"drew me backwards by the hairÃ¢â¬ , she assumed that it was death that was seizing her (her pessimistic expectation). Mystic ShapeÃ¢â¬ (line 10) suggests something mysterious and possibly sinister. In line 12: Ã¢â ¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ A voice said in mastery while I stroveÃ¢â¬ suggests the power of her new linings and her attempts to resist them because she feared them. Silver answer-color imagery-love has found her but isn't quite gold yet. She can while she is Joyful to find love she is wary of it. Silver also represents purity, so perhaps the answer of Ã¢â¬Ëlove' is pure and simple as further witnessed through the use of monosyllables Ã¢â¬ËNot Death but Love' Rang-connotative of wedding bells or announcements.Loud volume. Has it awoken her from her melancholy and sadness? Rang is also in present tense to show her awakening to love and Joy, as opposed to the past tense Ã¢â¬Ësung Wished' Sung, Voice,Rang -the experience is auditory. Why? Siren's call? Has she subverted this? She is like the men lead to their death? The dangers of love? Perhaps she only understands love when she hears it from someone else, she herself cannot articulate it because of her isolated existence. Bells are commonly representative of Joy and freedom.The shape of the bell is closely related to the vault of HEAVEN. A bell's pendulous motion can represent the extremes of good and evil; death and immortality. Its sound is a symbol of creative power, but can also be a call to arms. Is also phallic in some senses, a bell and handle = a vulva and a phallus. Embodiment of virginity, unmarried women adorn themselves with bells. The use of direct speech in lines 13 & 14 dramatists her surprise. The ellipsis in line 14 creates suspense before the final antithesis of Ã¢â¬Å"Not Death, but Love. Which highlights the great change in her outlook on life from the second quatrain. Volta: Browning plays with the Patriarchal form because she's more intent on meaning rather than staying with form. Goes into 9th line in sestets. Provides a Volta in line 13 after the caesura Ã¢â¬Ëbut there'. Ellipsis. The function of these is to show that she is reserved and reticent about embracing love due to her societal constr aints which include: patriarchal power structure, history of illness and tragedy, feels unworthy and mistrusts herself.Sense of Self-she is aware of her limitations and cleverly questions and challenges those through her poetry. Classical Elements in Poem Modern Elements of Poem Patriarchal Rhyme Scheme Theocratic Antique tongue Hair-allusion to Homer's Iliad epic The drama of death and love evokes classical drama and mythology, figures such as Orpheus and Eurydice and the fugue of fate. Can read her poems as a version of the silent, suffering powerless womanUsurps masculine conventions-she's no longer silent but eloquent Uses her structure to infer movement from stasis to an opening up of emotions Cleverly invokes sexuality and desire in a strict patriarchal society Transforms ritual of identity-sonnet is about (values debate about identity within context of conformity) She is aware of her limitations and cleverly challenges them throughout her poetry She is reserved and reticent a bout embracing love due to her societal constraints: patriarchal power Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 13 Theme: The dominant idea and tone of this sonnet seems to be uncertainty Ã¢â¬â uncertainty bout whether the poet/persona can trust her lover and whether she can control the intensity of her own feelings. This poem is about EBB being unable to speak or admit her love to Robert Browning, however, she paradoxically creates a work of art to declares her love. She declares herself as a poet maker which will then be her gift to Robert. She isn't ready to admit love yet. She will declare it when she is ready. The female voice instead of the traditional male voice.Unlike the traditional depiction of a woman in Patriarchs poetry-she is not silent. She poses and answers the heterocyclic question, Ã¢â¬ËAnd wilt though have me fashion into speech/the love I bear thee, finding words enoughÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë She adopts the Patrician sonnet style. She has control over her own silence, ques tioning the validity of words and hence the sonnet form itself. Paradox-this poem is about her not being able to communicate yet she communicates with Robert Browning through this poem. She does not introduce a Volta in lines 8 or 9 which shows her determination to express her uncertainty about revealing her feelings to Robber Browning. The sonnet.This is reflective of the conversational style of the letters and also emends the reader that the sonnet is part of a sequence of ideas. *The use of the archaic forms and Ã¢â¬Å"wiltÃ¢â¬ suggests that the question may be a device, as used in the sonnets of Shakespeare and the Metaphysical poets, to introduce her ideas dramatically, rather than a response to a real request from Robert. Ã¢â¬ËHold the torch out where the words are rough/ between our faces, to cast a light on each?.. Ã¢â¬Ë The torch and light here can symbolism illumination, exposure or disclosure and hence the revelation of their love to others, which EBB is afraid of as it will allow them to be criticized by others. In these lines EBB is also creating a drama of epic significance. The flaming torches allude to classical drama.She is also the one in control as she is the torch bearer, which again subverts the traditional notion of the submissive woman in Patriarchal poetry. The metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"where the words are roughÃ¢â¬ suggests the external forces that make it difficult to her express her love publicly, possibly a reference to her father's opposition. Ã¢â¬Å"I drop it at thy feet'. Cleverly denounces her previous image of power and control by submitting humbly to him. The use of the verb drop suggests her inability to effectively be a torchbearer and consequently she reveals to him that she in unable to effectively communicate her love to him in her writing, Ã¢â¬Ël cannot teach my hand to hold my spirit so far off/From myself.. Me. Ã¢â¬Ë The high modality reflects her inability to do so. Nay, -let the silence of my womanhood/Commend my woman-love to thy belief-Ã¢â¬Ë Cleverly adopts the role of a virtuous Victorian woman who until the point of marriage will not talk and must remain a mystery. The first word of the sestets Ã¢â¬Å"Nay' (No) does not introduce a Volta (turn) in this case. Instead it emphasizes her determination not to declare her love, reinforcing the second quatrain. Ã¢â¬ËAnd that I stand union, however wooed'. There is a lovely play on contrasting words here with the W sound which emphasizes the paradoxical nature of her situation. She is in love but cannot admit it, however, cleverly explores and conveys her emotions of uncertainty to Robert through her poetry.She urges her lover to assume that she is following the conventions of courtly love (suggested by the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"woman-loveÃ¢â¬ and the archaic word Ã¢â¬Å"wooedÃ¢â¬ ), in which the woman was expected to pretend disinterest as a sign of modesty and a way to encourage her lover to more extravagant protestation of his love. (This l inks to the archaic forms in the first quatrain. ) Here, the verb Ã¢â¬Ërending is powerful and sexual. Her outward unresponsiveness conceals deeply felt passion. The image of being ravished is suggested in the metaphor of her life as a garment being torn apart. The superlative Ã¢â¬Ëmost' coupled with the rhyming and long sounding Ã¢â¬Ëdauntless, voiceless' reveals the amount of mental and emotional strength needed by EBB to guard her feelings.She again creates the classical image of woman. She is heroic and strong in grief. Lest one touch of this heart convey its grief'. The singular Ã¢â¬ËOne touch' conveys the powerful brevity of tenderness and instantaneous consequent vulnerability of revealing her love. Should she reveal her love, she will be open to Ã¢â¬Ëgrief, the grief that comes with love and happiness. It may also be personal grief due to the loss of her brother as well as the social grief that comes as a result of the restrictions placed on women during her time. Revealing her love will make her vulnerable in many ways and will open up a plethora of emotions for her. Admitting love.The pronouns change from male thou' and thee' to female to Ã¢â¬ËI' and Ã¢â¬ËmyselfÃ¢â¬ ¦. Me' to neutral this'. This could reveal the process in which she constructs a hybrid gender for herself which allows her to escape patriarchal constraints and usurp masculine conventions (see below). The drama is that this is a woman speaking as a lover to a lover, about the nature of love poetry. The emphasis is on the nature of Woman-love' and the paradox is that her traditional Ã¢â¬Ësilence' has become powerful eloquence. Part of the challenge is that EBB works with cross dressing and paradoxes about hybrid gender , as in her poems o George Sand, that Ã¢â¬Ëlarge-brained woman and large-hearted man'.While she usurps masculine conventions, authority and eloquence she also insists that she retains a tragic identity as the always Ã¢â¬Ëunion' and enduring woman, the lover who cannot admit love, and in that way suffers love that in turn leads to sadness. Intellectualism and paradox are certainly part of her strategy and essential to the emotional power of the sonnet. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 14 In this poem EBB has accepted her suitor's love, but now makes demands regarding the nature of that love. She urges her lover to love her not for any particular reason, but simply because he loves her Ã¢â¬Å"for love's sake only'. She argues that if there is a particular reason for loving someone, then a change in circumstances can remove the reason and destroy the love.One interesting interpretation is that she is cleverly This could be validated with the fact that Ã¢â¬Ëlove' is repeated nine times in the poem. Ã¢â¬ËIf thou must love me, let it be for enough/Except for love's sake only. Ã¢â¬Ë The opening line is very dramatic and is addressed directly to the lover in the archaic second person (Ã¢â¬Å"thouÃ¢â¬ ). She tells him: If you mus t love me, let it be for nothing. The high modality of the auxiliary verb Ã¢â¬Å"mustÃ¢â¬ may be playfully suggesting that she does not really want him to love her or that she cannot believe that he would actually want to (a sign of her sense of inferiority). Like Sonnet 13 she also begins with the conjunction Ã¢â¬Ëif which creates a conversational tone. The idea of loving her for nothing seems strange until we read line 2. (I. E. He power of the idea is created by the enjambment, creating a pause before the qualifying condition Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"exceptÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬ËDo not say/ Ã¢â¬ I love her for her smile.. Re look.. Her way [Of speaking gently.. ; for a trick of thought/ That falls in well with mine, and Cortes brought/ A sense of pleasant ease on such as day-Ã¢â¬ EBB uses the imperative voice and listing of conventional attributes that are admired in women to warn Robert not to love her for these superficial qualities as they are subject to change. Ellipsis is used i n these lines to suggest alternates that he might say. (Cortes Ã¢â¬â certainly) Ã¢â¬ËFor these things in themselves beloved, may/Be changed, or change for thee,.. ND love so wrought,/May be inwrought so. Here, EBB explains why she does not want IM to love her in these ways Ã¢â¬â because these things may change, destroying the love. In using the contrast of opposites Wrought/inwrought' EBB highlights how easily love may come undone when it is based on transient qualities, as easily and simply as adding a small prefix to a word that resonates with work and effort. The word Ã¢â¬Å"belovedÃ¢â¬ in line 7 shows that she really loves him, dispelling any doubt that may have been created by line 1 . She has not used this word before to address him in previous poems for study. Ã¢â¬ËNeither love me for /Thing own dear pity wiping my cheeks dry! For one might well forget to weep, who bore/Thy comfort long, and lose love thereby-Ã¢â¬Ë The idea in lines 9 Ã¢â¬â 12 is that he sho uld not love her because he pities her unhappiness, because his love would make her happy, so he could no longer pity her, and therefore, no longer love her. The exclamatory shows that she is horrified of being pitied. Ã¢â¬ËBut love me for love's sake, that evermore/ Thou Mays love on through love's eternity. Ã¢â¬Ë The poem ends with a clear and direct use of the imperative mood to emphasis her main idea Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"love me for love's sakeÃ¢â¬ . She repeats the words of line 2, avian explained why she made the opening statement. Not be affected by changing circumstances, further reinforcing the poet's main idea.In terms of the sonnet form, EBB has now moved away from the half rhymes in her sestets to full rhyme for', Ã¢â¬Ëbore' Ã¢â¬Ëevermore' and Ã¢â¬Ëdry, thereby. However, she utilities half rhyme in ending with Ã¢â¬Ëeternity. This serves to emphasis the uniqueness of the word and the longevity of their love (made up of four syllables and the longest sounding word in the poem) and hence the uniqueness of their love if it isn't based on approaching her and loving her as a conventional woman. F a woman in Patriarchal poetry-she is not silent. She is in control and makes demands of Robert Borrowing love. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 21 The tone of this sonnet is dramatically different from the three previous ones set for study.It is more exuberant (excited, high-spirited), clearly shown by the number of exclamations. This might suggest that her doubts about the genuineness of Robber's love are decreasing and she is beginning to enjoy their relationship. (One study guide refers to her Ã¢â¬Å"pleasureÃ¢â¬ , another to her Ã¢â¬Å"thrillÃ¢â¬ . ) An alternative reading might be that there is a sense of desperation in her excitement Ã¢â¬â that she is urging him to keep telling her that he loves her so she can overcome her doubts. There is evidence in the poem to Justify either approach, so you must make your own Judgment. In lines 1 -6 sh e urges her beloved to keep telling her that he loves her.There is a typical dramatic opening, addressing her lover directly Ã¢â¬Å"BelovedÃ¢â¬ and using repetition Ã¢â¬Å"again and yet againÃ¢â¬ . The repeated use of exclamatory in line 6 and 7 line create a sense of exuberance. The foregrounding of the adjectival Ã¢â¬ËBeloved' may reveal an acceptance of her feelings towards Robert Browning, as she has now placed the term f endearment at the start of the poem (in contrast to Sonnet 14). Mores it relegates him to the object of the poem and thus EBB again subverts the traditional Patriarchal sonnet which had the woman as the object. EBB also subverts the form by taking control through the use of the imperative tone. She compares his repeated declarations of his love to the song of the cuckoo (Ã¢â¬Å"cuckoo-songÃ¢â¬ & Ã¢â¬Å"cuckoo-strainÃ¢â¬ ).This bird is heard very frequently in spring in England, and many people get sick of its monotonous calling. She suggests that wh ile people might get sick of hearing the cuckoo, it should be welcomed because spring Anton come without it. In the same way, she cannot experience love without him Ã¢â¬ËRemember, never to the hill and plain/ Valley & wood, without her cuckoo-strain. Ã¢â¬Ë Hills were the first manifestation of the creation of the world, standing high enough to be set away from primeval chaos, but lacking the majestic size of mountains. Biblical allusion Isaiah 40:4 Ã¢â¬ËEvery valley shall be raised, and every mountain and hill made low, the rough ground shall become level, the rugged places a plain.This suggests how everything will be complete and perfect when he repeats his love for her. Plains-symbol of space and boundless earth. Horizontal and opposed to the vertical hill. Valley-symbolic complement of a mountain. Egg yin (valley) and yang (Mountain). Commonly a symbol of fertility and life. Valley is also a Biblical allusion to Psalm 23:even though I walk through the valley of the shadow o f death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me (lots of sexual connotations here! ) Wood- Symbolizes superhuman wisdom and knowledge. The carpenter uses tools symbolic of the divine power of bringing order out of chaos.Through the use of these natural and Biblical symbols. EBB suggests that they will not find perfection, complementing unity or order in their love without him repeating he loves her. Note the personification of Ã¢â¬Å"sweet Spring in all her green completed' to herald a fresh start/rebirth/growth. Green is also the color of the Goddess of love Aphrodite who was born from a green sea-so mythological allusion. In lines 7 Ã¢â¬â 9 she admits to doubts about his love. Ã¢â¬Å"darknessÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"doubtful spiritÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"doubt's painÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Cry' have powerful negative connotations, suggesting that the process of deciding whether he really loves her has been very painful. Are these doubts in the past or the present? The use of ellipsis in line 9 suggests hesitation, making the use of the imperative (Ã¢â¬Å"Cry .. Speak seem a little desperate. In lines 9- 11 the rhetorical question suggests renewed confidence. She argues that just as you cannot have too many stars or too many flowers, so you cannot say Ã¢â¬Å"l love youÃ¢â¬ too often. This continues the association of his love with positive aspects of nature begun in line 6. Stars are symbols of divinity and constancy much like their love. Flowers in contrast are transitory (they don't live forever). EBB again uses humbly to show how their love whilst mortal, can remain eternal. In lines 12 Ã¢â¬â 13 she again uses the imperative mood, combined with repetition to urge him to continue to say he loves her. TollÃ¢â¬ metaphorically compares declaring his love to ringing a bell and Ã¢â¬Å"silver utteranceÃ¢â¬ has positive connotations. (Note that she used Ã¢â¬Å"silver answerÃ¢â¬ in Sonnet 1) We discussed silver as being less precious than gold and therefore their love whilst still precious is more real rather than ideal. The bell is a symbol of Joy and freedom and in some senses is also phallic- so there are sexual connotations here again. In line 13 the dash introduces a change of idea, and a change to a more serious tone. While she enjoys hearing him say that he loves her, she also wants him to love her Ã¢â¬Å"in deep and lasting love. In terms of the sonnet form, this is the first sonnet for study that does not employ half rhyme in the sestets.Thus the full rhyme could signify her growing confidence in their love. Elizabeth Barrett Browning Sonnet 22 The tone of this sonnet is very different to that of Sonnet XIX. It is extremely serious but also confident, suggesting that the poet is absolutely sure of the truth of what she is saying. EBB suggests that their love can take them into a spiritual realm away from earthly concerns, but then rejects this. She prefers them to remain earthly lovers, even th ough she recognizes that physical love is not permanent because it cannot overcome death. She argues that nothing in life can harm them because they love each other. There is also a sense of equality in this poem. There is no masculine or feminine aspect.She's become a man/woman voice (note the allusions to masculine mythological figures. Angels are gender neutral). In this sonnet the poet uses the first person plural (we / us / our). This is a velveteen from the previous ones set for study, in which she used the first and second person singular. The change reflects her growing certainty that they truly love each other. In the octave she imagines their souls facing each other in silence, getting closer together until their Ã¢â¬Å"lengthening wings break into fire. Ã¢â¬ This image seems to refer to their deaths, when their physical bodies will be destroyed and their souls will escape to heaven together. This interpretation is supported by the reference to angels.It links to the wi sh expressed in Sonnet XIV to be loved Ã¢â¬Å"through love's eternity. Ã¢â¬ and in Sonnet XIX to be loved with his Ã¢â¬Å"soul. Ã¢â¬ The image also has overtones of the mythical phoenix, a bird that burns itself to ashes and comes forth with new life (it is a symbol of resurrection) Ã¢â¬â suggesting the intensity of the love has Ã¢â¬Å"destroyedÃ¢â¬ her old self and renewed her. Ã¢â¬ËUntil their lengthening wings break into fire'. Here we have the use of classical/ mythological allusion to Circus who flew to close to the sun and had his wings melt. Could this suggest that their love is so passionate it could be dangerous? Fire is also a symbol for knowledge and wisdom and again refers to the classical story of
1. A nation's ability to compete with other nations impacts a business' strategy in the area of: A) Marketing B) Finance C) Operations D) Distribution E) All of the above 2. Competitiveness doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t include: A) Productivity B) Effectiveness C) Profitability D) Operations Strategy E) Operations Management 3. Cost cutting in international operations can take place because of A) lower taxes and tariffs B) lower wage scales C) lower indirect costs D) less stringent regulations E) all of the above 4. Operations management involves continuous decision-making; hopefully most decisions made will be: A) redundant B) minor in nature C) smart D) quantitative E) none of the above5. A Ã¢â¬Ëproduct package' consists of: A) the exterior wrapping B) the shipping container C) a combination of goods and services D) goods if a manufacturing organization E) customer relations if a service organization6. Multinational organizations can shop from country to country and cut costs through A) lower wage scales B) lower indirect costs C) less stringent regulations D) lower taxes and tariffs E) all of the above7. Product design and choice of location are examples of _______ decisions. A) strategic B) tactical C) operational D) customer focused E) design8. Scheduling personnel is an example of an operations management: A) mission implementation B) operational decision C) organizational strategy D) functional strategy E) tactical decision9. Productivity is expressed as: A) output plus input B) outp ut minus input C) output times input D) output divided by input E) input divided by output10. Which of the following is true about business strategies? A) An organization should stick with its strategy for the life of the business. B) All firms within an industry will adopt the same strategy. C) Well defined missions make strategy development much easier. D) Strategies are formulated independently of SWOT analysis. E) Organizational strategies depend on operations strategies.11. Which of the following activities takes place most immediately once the mission has been developed? A) The firm develops alternative or back-up missions in case the original mission fails. B) The functional areas develop their functional area strategies. C) The functional areas develop their supporting missions. D) The ten OM decision areas are prioritized. E) Operational tactics are developed.12. What term describes how an organization expects to achieve its missions and goals? A) conditional expectation B) tactic C) SWOT D) strategy E) competitive advantage13. Which of the following is not a key step toward improving productivity? A) developing productivity measures for all operations B) improving the bottleneck operations C) establishing reasonable goals for improvement D) considering incentives to reward workers E) converting bond debt to stock ownership14. The fundamental purpose of an organization's mission statement is to A) create a good human relations climate in the organization B) define the organization's purpose in society C) define the operational structure of the organization D) generate good public relations for the organization E) define the functional areas required by the organization15. The ratio of good output to quantity of raw material input is called A) non-defective productivity B) process yield C) worker quality measurement D) total quality productivity E) quantity/quality ratio16. Time-based approaches of business organizations focus on reducing the time to a ccomplish certain necessary activities. Time reductions seldom apply to: A) product/service design time B) processing time C) delivery time D) response time for complaints E) internal audits17. Business organizations consist of three major functions which: A) overlap B) are mutually exclusive C) exist independently of each other D) function independently of each other E) do not interface with each other18. The external elements of SWOT analysis are: A) strengths and weaknesses B) strengths and threats C) opportunities and threats D) weaknesses and opportunities E) strengths and opportunities19. Which of the following is not one of the Ten Critical Decisions of Operations Management? A) location strategy B) human resources and job design C) managing quality D) design of goods and services E) determining the financial leverage position20. Which of the following is true? A) Corporate mission is shaped by functional strategies. B) Corporate strategy is shaped by functional strategies. C ) Functional strategies are shaped by corporate strategy. D) External conditions are shaped by corporate mission. E) Functional area missions are merged to become the organizational mission.21. Operations management is applicable A) mostly to the service sector B) to services exclusively C) mostly to the manufacturing sector D) to all firms, whether manufacturing or service E) to the manufacturing sector exclusively22. Which of the international operations strategies involves a focus on high cost reductions and low local responsiveness? A) international strategy B) global strategy C) transnational strategy D) multidomestic strategy E) none of the above23. Which of the following is not a key factor of competitiveness? A) price B) product differentiation C) flexibility D) after-sale service E) size of organization24. Gourmet Pretzels bakes soft pretzels on an assembly line. It currently bakes 800 pretzels each 8-hour shift. If the production is increased to 1,200 pretzels each shift, the productivity increases by: A) 50% B) 33% C) 25% D) 67%25. An operation that processes less than a previous operation is called a: A) bottleneck B) multi-factor constraint C) parallel operation D) turnabout process E) tactical operation26. Which of the following is not a type of operations? A) goods production B) storage/transportation C) entertainment D) communication E) all the above involve operations27. Which one of the following would not generally be classified under the heading of transformation? A) assembling B) teaching C) staffing D) farming E) consulting28. Which of the following is least likely to be a Cost Leadership competitive advantage? A) low overhead B) effective capacity use C) inventory management D) broad product line E) mass production29. The ability of an organization to produce goods or services that have some uniqueness in their characteristics is A) mass production B) time-based competition C) competing on productivity D) competing on flexibility E) comp eting on differentiation30. Which of the international operations strategies involves a focus on low cost reductions and high local responsiveness? A) international strategy B) global strategy C) transnational strategy D) multidomestic strategy E) none of the above31. Which of the following statements best characterizes delivery reliability? A) a company that always delivers on the same day of the week B) a company that always delivers at the promised time C) a company that delivers more frequently than its competitors D) a company that delivers faster than its competitors E) a company that has a computerized delivery scheduling system32. Which of the following best describes Ã¢â¬Å"experience differentiationÃ¢â¬ ? A) immerses consumers in the delivery of a service B) uses people's five senses to enhance the service C) complements physical elements with visual and sound elements D) consumers may become active participants in the product or service E) All of the above are elements of experience differentiation.33. Product design and process selection are examples of decisions that are: A) financial B) tactical C) system design D) system operation E) forecasting34. The responsibilities of the operations manager are: A) planning, organizing, staffing, procuring, and reviewing B) planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling C) forecasting, designing, planning, organizing, and controlling D) forecasting, designing, operating, procuring, and reviewing E) designing and operating35. Which of the following is not true about systems approach? A) A systems viewpoint is almost always beneficial in decision making. B) A systems approach emphasizes interrelationships among subsystems. C) A systems approach concentrates on efficiency within subsystems. D) A systems approach is essential whenever something is being redesigned or improved. E) All of the above are true.36. Which of the following is not a characteristic of service operations? A) intangible output B) high customer contact C) high labor content D) easy measurement of productivity E) low uniformity of output37. Which of the following does not relate to system design? A) altering the system capacity B) location of facilities C) inventory management D) selection and acquisition of equipment E) physical arrangement of departments38. Which of the following is not a benefit of using models in decision making? A) They provide a standardized format for analyzing a problem. B) They serve as a consistent tool for evaluation. C) They are easy to use and less expensive than dealing with the actual situation. D) All of the above are benefits. E) None of the above is a benefit.39. Which of the following is the best example of competing on low-cost leadership? A) A firm produces its product with less raw material waste than its competitors. B) A firm offers more reliable products than its competitors. C) A firm's products are introduced into the market faster than its competitors' products. D) A firm's research and development department generates many ideas for new products. E) A firm advertises more than its competitors.40. Reasons to study Operations Management include learning about A) how people organize themselves for productive enterprise B) how goods and services are produced C) what operations managers do D) a costly part of the enterpriseE) all of the above
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
At the heart of King Lear lies the relationship between father and child. Central to this filial theme is the conflict between manÃ¢â¬â¢s law and natureÃ¢â¬â¢s law. Natural law is synonymous with the moral authority usually associated with divine justice. Those who adhere to the tenets of natural law are those characters in the text who act instinctively for the common goodÃ¢â¬âKent, Albany, Edgar, and Cordelia. Eventually, Gloucester and Lear learn the importance of natural law when they recognize that they have violated these basic tenets, with both finally turning to nature to find answers for why their children have betrayed them. Their counterparts, Edmund, Goneril, Regan, and Cornwall, represent the evil that functions in violation of natural law. All four conspirators are without conscience and lack recognition of higher moral authority, since they never consider divine justice as they plot their evil. Their law is man-made, and it focuses on the individual, not the good of the community. Tragedy unfolds as two carefully interwoven and parallel stories explore the abandonment of natural order and the unnatural betrayal of parent and child. In the primary plot, Lear betrays his youngest daughter and is betrayed by his two oldest daughters. In almost identical fashion, the subplot reveals another father, Gloucester, who betrays his older legitimate son and who is betrayed by his younger illegitimate son. In both cases, the natural filial relationship between father and children is destroyed through a lack of awareness, a renunciation of basic fairness and natural order, and hasty judgment based on emotions. By the playÃ¢â¬â¢s end, the abandonment of natural order leaves the stage littered with the dead bodies of fathers and their children. In the opening act, Lear creates a love test to justify giving Cordelia a larger share of his kingdom. Although his kingdom should be divided equally, Lear clearly loves Cordelia more and wants to give her the largest, choice section of his wealth. In return, Lear expects excessive flattery and gushing confessions of love. But instead, CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s reply is tempered, honest, and reasonableÃ¢â¬âcustom dictates that she share her love between her husband and her father. Just as soon as Cordelia fails to meet her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, Lear disinherits her. At CordeliaÃ¢â¬â¢s loss, Goneril and Regan are quick to take advantage. They may have genuinely loved their father at one time, but they now seem tired of having been passed over in favor of their younger sister. After Lear states his obvious preference for Cordelia, the older sisters feel free to seek their revenge, turning the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s natural order on its ear. At the same time, Lear fails to see the strength and justice in natural law, and disinherits his youngest child, thus setting in motion the disaster that follows. Lear puts in place a competition between sisters that will carry them to their graves. In a similar father-child relationship, the opening scene of King Lear positions Gloucester as a thoughtless parent. The audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction to this second father has him speaking of EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s birth in a derogatory manner. Although Gloucester says that he loves both Edmund and Edgar equally, society does not regard the two as equalÃ¢â¬âand neither does Gloucester, whose love is limited to words and not actions of equality. According to natureÃ¢â¬â¢s law, Edmund is as much GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s son as Edgar is; but according to manÃ¢â¬â¢s law of primogeniture, Edmund is not recognized as GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s heir. In one of the initial pieces of information offered about Edmund, Gloucester tells Kent that Edmund has been away seeking his fortune, but he has now returned. Under English law, Edmund has no fortune at home, nor any entitlement. EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s return in search of family fortune provides the first hint that he will seize what English laws will not give him. Clearly, EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are a result of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s preferenceÃ¢â¬âboth legal and filialÃ¢â¬âfor Edgar, his older and legitimate son. This favoritism leads to EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to destroy his father in an attempt to gain legitimacy and GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s estate. Again, the natural order of family is ignored. Gloucester rejects natural law and a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s love for his child when he is easily convinced that EdgarÃ¢â¬âthe son he claims to love so muchÃ¢â¬âhas betrayed him. Gloucester also puts his faith in EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s command of persuasiveÃ language, when he rejects the love his eldest son has always shown him. With this move, the earl demonstrates that he can be swayed by eloquence, a man-made construct for easy persuasion, which causes him to reject natural law and the bond between father and child. Edmund both ignores and embraces natural law. By betraying his father to Cornwall and Regan, EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s self-serving course of action abandons natureÃ¢â¬â¢s order and instead foreshadows the neo-Darwinist argument for survival of the strongest individual. His ability to survive and win is not based on competitive strategies or healthy family relationships; instead, Edmund will take what he desires by deceiving those who trust and love him. EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s greed favors natural law over manÃ¢â¬â¢s law because natural law doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care that Edmund is illegitimate. He claims nature as his ally because he is a Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ offspring, and because manÃ¢â¬â¢s law neglects to recognize his rights of inheritance. But, nature only serves Edmund as a convenient excuse for his actions. His actions against his brother and father are more a facet of greed than any reliance on natural law. One might argue that GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s cavalier attitude toward EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s conception mitigates EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. When combining this possibility with EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s final scene, in which he tries to save Cordelia and Lear, Edmund clearly shows himself to be of different fabric than Goneril, Regan, and Cornwall. In many ways, Gloucester is responsible for what Edmund becomes. Edmund is as much GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s son as is Edgar. In embracing the man-made laws that reject EdmundÃ¢â¬â¢s legal rights, Gloucester is denying natural laws that would make Edmund and Edgar equal. Gloucester also acts against nature in rejecting Edgar without sufficient proof of his wrongdoing; thus Gloucester shares responsibility for the actions that follow, just as LearÃ¢â¬â¢s love test results in his rejection of Cordelia. Both men are easily fooled and consequently, they both reject natural law and their children. Both act without deliberation, with hasty responses that ultimately betray their descendants. At the playÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion, Goneril and ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s abandonment of natural order and their subscription to evil has finally destroyed them. The audience learns early in the final scene that Goneril has poisoned Regan and killed herself. Their deaths are a result of unnatural competition, both for power and for love. But Lear is the one who set in motion the need to establish strength through competition, when he pitted sister against sister in the love test. For the audience, the generational conflict between parent and child is an expected part of life. We grow impatient with our parents and they with us. We attempt to control our children, and they rebel. When Goneril complains that Lear and his men are disruptive and out of control, we can empathizeÃ¢â¬ârecognizing that our own parentÃ¢â¬â¢s visits can extend too long or that our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s friends can be quite noisy. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s examination of natural order is central to our own lives, and that is one of the enduring qualities of King Lear.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Ethics in Management Consulting - Case Study Example I strongly agree with the author since the Consultancy is a dynamic field with a lot of expectations and reputation that help in better service delivery. Issues of confidentiality and anonymity are essential in quality service to clients and ensure the consultancy is operating within the accepted ethics. Ã The dilemma that the case presents is that of fee charge to various clients. The dilemma of the fee to charge arises from time to time and what should be the criteria to ascertain the fee to different groups of clients. Ã I would charge different consultant fee to various groups of clients should I be in the similar situation. This would the through using the information obtained initially from them. Some of the criteria would be to look at their economic capabilities to pay and the nature of consultancy work. I strongly agree with the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s view. This is based on the fact that the nature of consultancy varies from client to client so it can only be rational to charge a different fee. In addition, different clients are served at the interval and with various economical capabilities (ability to pay). Ã Hauser, A. (2009). Ethics in Management Consulting: An examination of the extent to which the principles of integrative consulting ethics are incorporated in management consulting firms in Germany.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Intersex and Intersex Surgery - Essay Example In the western society, the field of intersex is very clear in educating people on the various disorders that human beings bear and the efforts that scientists have made in the comprehension of the conditions. Many writers have also made tremendous strides forward in a bid to educate people on the various conditions involved in the field of intersex. Another aspect of the field that has close ties with the main subject is intersex surgery. This is the kind of surgery performed on people with the intersex disorder in a bid to accomplish varying purposes. The two main reasons that the surgery is performed are to either save the life of the person or to address social issues that the person may be facing (Sytsma 106). However, many scientists warn about the issue of genital surgery as research shows that the results got from the surgery are far worse than good on not only the areas under surgery but also the entire body system of the person. Katrina Roen is a very famous writer who has written many books and articles concerning the area of intersex. She is the writer of one critically analyzed and reviewed article called Ã¢â¬Å"But We Have to Do Something.Ã¢â¬ The article has had major reviews from the manner in which Katrina focuses on the issues portrayed by various writers in the field of intersex and intersex surgery. She majorly focuses on the issue of cosmetic surgery in the western society in relation to infants atypically sexed. In her publication, she criticizes the rest of the publications stating that the manner in which they feature the female and human body as a whole is not only demining but also bothering the rest of the population. In the 21st century, many changes have been made in the surgical processes carried out, and this has had great benefits to many people. However, Katrina states that these changes should not be a reason for people to always opt for surgery and especially when dealing with young people and infants. Katrina states that t he young and infants are rather vulnerable at their ages and getting them through surgery is a rather traumatic process. She goes ahead to state that parents should take responsibility for their actions as anything may happen in the surgical rooms having authorized the procedures. It is not right for children and infants to go through the strenuous surgical processes as they may have a negative impact on their development, and the outcome is never certain (Roen 42). Katrina also states that taking them through the procedures is rather poor as the kids had no approval of undergoing the procedure. She then advises that parents halt such procedures and just wait for their kids to grow up and make their own decisions as to whether they should undergo the surgery or continue living in their conditions. Another factor that she takes into consideration while going around her discussion is about the work published by feminists and their regard to intersex procedures. She criticizes other fe male writers and professors from the manner in which they portray the female body. According to Katrina, many feminists in the 21st century have been swept by the moving wind of globalization and technology. She states that this is not a bad fact and is rather commendable as it increases the field of research for problem solution. However, she claims that this should not be an excuse for
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Ethical dilemmas permeate the criminal justice system. (The Parole Board, The Warden, The District Attorney, The Officer) - Research Paper Example Thus, Robert should endeavour to maintain the high standards set for a state prison. In the same way, RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s jurisdiction is not only limited to the physical welfare of the prisoners. He must also see to it that the objective of incarceration of the prisoners, that is, not just to punish them for their malfeasance and/or misfeasance, but more so, to reform them so as to make them more productive individuals after their release. The issue on overcrowded prison cells already exists. The potential risk of being sued for violation of human rights, among others, cannot be denied. The families of the concerned inmates or even the concerned citizens may sue the state anytime, and the grounds therefore are glaring. This may only be one issue; however, the possibility of using it against the present administration is a big possibility. It may therefore ripen into a national or international issue. On the other hand, premature release of prisoners will surely expose the public from danger. If the inmates will be released sooner than they should be, the process of reformation may not be complete. Hence, the inclination to do evil is not yet totally cleansed from the prisoners. The period within which the each prisoner would undergo in order to realize his mistakes and its consequences is not yet attained. Therefore, there will be no assurance that upon release of these prisoners, they could easily live normally with other people, without the public being exposed to possible risks of becoming victims, once again, by the former lawless elements. I believe that Robert should not suggest the release of inmates to community-based supervision. Rather, Robert should suggest that additional prison cells be constructed so as to solve the problem on overcrowding. If he will do the former, Robert will be relieved of some of his duties but ultimately, he shall be morally responsible for its consequences. Robert should apply the Ã¢â¬Å"act utilitarian ethical theoryÃ¢â¬ . This means that his decision must be based on the greatest benefit to the most number of people, without regard to the personal feelings or societal pressures. According to this theory, Ã¢â¬Å"an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights may be infringed in order to benefit a greater population.Ã¢â¬ (Rainbow, Catherine. Ã¢â¬Å"Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles Ã¢â¬Å". Davidson College. n.d. Web. 05 May 2012. http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm) This act utilitarian ethical theory takes into account the total value of the effects of a particular act, the one which is more important. The act that yields to the common good or benefit is considered the perfect ethical choice. If the overall benefits from an act is greater than the total damage, if any, the decision made is definitely morally acceptable. In this scenario, premature release of prisoners to community- based supervision is favourable to the inmates only. They will be freed from living in highly-congested prison cells where they are exposed to acquired illnesses, uncomfortable manner of sleep, etc. Yes, there is the possibility of them becoming Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ persons in the civil society if given the chance. However, since their term of imprisonment is not yet through, the former being based on the kind of crime committed, the likelihood that they have not yet fully realized the consequences of their acts and its effects to the community might expose the public to a possible repetition of the criminal acts previously committed. These possibilities, no matter how remote, cannot totally be ignored. Robert should instill in his mind that prisoners were being imprisoned because of commission of a crime. They need
Friday, July 26, 2019
Camera - Essay Example Below the first camera from Kodak is taken as a product for the description as how it has passed through the different stages of the PLC curve with different combinations of marketing mix i.e. the 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s-Product, Price, Place and Promotion being applied to it and how later it had to be differentially renovated as digital camera (Jason, 2006). PLC marketing mix integration Before a product is introduced in the market, a lot of proper research and development goes for the development of the product. The Research is done to find out key things like whether there is need for this type of product will the revenue is worth applying the innovation cost, the cost of production etc. Similar is the case with cameras. Before the market introduction stage, the product was incepted and then developed by the company. Introduction Stage: In the introduction stage, customers are not familiar with this type of product. Since it is a product newly launched people are not fully aware of its advant ages, availability and specifications. In this stage, branding, the establishment of quality and performance level, and intellectual property protection like patents and trademarks are done. The pricing of the camera is designed such that it is low enough for market penetration but enough to recover the Research and Development costs incurred. The camera is highly promoted during this stage through advertisement, direct selling as well as dealership because it is newly launched and the customer has to be made to notice the product and be interested in knowing about it. People are made aware of the advantages like good quality photos, comfortable and handy to use, compact etc. so that the potential customers get a reason to buy the new camera. So the potential customers are aimed at and provided with awareness and information about it. The distribution of the camera is selective in its early stage till the customers start accepting the product. Promotion is done based on the innovati on factor and the USPs of the new camera. Growth Stage: In the growth stage, sales are likely to grow as the customers are made aware of the product well. Profits go up due to active promotions in the introduction stage when people became aware of the advantages of a camera and had the emotional connect established that by buying a camera they do not buy only a product but they took home a way to keep their memories safe. So, in this stage the sale of the camera starts increasing at an accelerated rate and may even reach a peak. At this time, other companies in this industry became aware of the benefits of this product lunch and started launching their own cameras, as such the competition increased. The price is still kept higher as the monopolistic competition increased. During the growth stage, the promotion is not needed to be aggressive as the market penetration had already been done. Maturity Stage: In the maturity stage, the cameras have several competitions. Every player woul d start to add up to the basic and bring an augmented product to the market. As a result, a number of similar brand like Kodak, Canon, Sony are in the market. The price competition is increased and so is the price sensitivity. The profit margin though lowered negligibly, yet the business remains prospering due to the
Thursday, July 25, 2019
The Role Of Social Performance Of Organizations - Assignment Example A business has to consider the social factors for proper operation and efficient functioning. A successful organization is the one that one that can create a relationship that can last for a long time with its customers. How the two relate should be of a mutual benefit i.e. the decisions made by the business and the social policies should be in line with the principle of shared value. A successful business is always brought about by the improvement in the living standard of the people where the organization operates.Apple Company was developed in 1/04/1976 bb Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak who are the co-founders. Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation that was incorporated on January 3, 1997. It designs, manufactures, and sells electronics, software, online services, portable digital music players, and laptops. By revenue, it is the second largest information technology in the world after Samsung Electronics, and the third in the world in terms of mobile phone makers. Its main serv ices and products are iPad, iPod, iPhone, Mac, Apple TV, a package of users and professional software application, OSX and iOS operation systems, iCloud, and many other accessories, services, and offerings. Apple Inc. is best known for its creative and proprietary software and hardware and has reached many milestones in the world of technology in the recent years. Studies have shown that it is among the most admired organizations in the world and it tops in innovation and management of employees (Linzmayer, O. W 2004).
Contemporary Management - Assignment Example Companies that have employed the excellence tool have reported increased agility, reduced costs, increased sales, and increase in people or personnel. Although the changes may not be visible immediately, it does not take more than five years for a company to report profitability and improved performance. The paper ends by urging companies to develop performance monitoring and increase strategies that include the use of EFQM. Over the years, the number of companies using organisational evaluation to identify and advance their competitive position to cope with the ever-evolving milieu has been on the rise. Since the EFQM model came into existence in 1992, its use in companies across Europe as an outline for organisational self-evaluation has increased (Morden, 2004, p. 132).The model is now a popular self-assessment tool all over Europe, as capital markets all over the world are developing increasing attention on the potential earnings and anticipated earnings of cooperate organisations (Hakes 2007). The model lies at the centre of evaluation attracting a host of reactions as to whether it is essential in influencing the bottom line of organisations. Understanding the dynamics of this model is important to many to understand its place in organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s self-assessment. This report assesses a wide range of literature and data to highlight the importance of the EFQM model to highlight its importance in organisations. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model stands as a basis for self-assessment and has a long and rich history. EFQM is a derivative of Total Quality Management along with other performance frameworks such as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA, together with the Deming Prize (Boulter et al. 2013, p.198). It is used to attain the national awards such as the European Quality Award by external review started after its introduction by presidents of several
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
The French Revolution - Essay Example The primary roots of the French Revolution were the political and economic interests of various influential leaders, and the widespread social injustice in France and the colonies due to the monarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s and nobilityÃ¢â¬â¢s abuse of the masses which led to economic hardships and the absence of civil rights and liberties for all. Scholars and other individuals underscored the political motivation behind the French Revolution. Thomas Ott underscored the political aspects of the revolution in St. Domingue. He noted that during the early eighteenth century, Ã¢â¬Å"tensions gathered in St. Domingue between bureaucrat and grand blanc, grand blanc and petit blanc, white and mulatto, mulatto and black, black and whiteÃ¢â¬ (188). He is saying that racial divisions promoted divided political interests where political leadership had become more and more important for each racial group. John P. McKay and other scholars agreed that political motivation affected the revolution in St. Domingue. Slaves wanted to be free, mulattoes wanted to be elevated to white status, while the white elite saw the French Revolution as a way of increasing control over their local affairs (596). At the same time, some of the members of the National Assembly were considered as wanting power for their own and riding on the movement as a wa y of gaining political power, which Toussaint LOuverture noted when he addressed the French Directory in 1797. He said that he wanted to enlighten the Directory Ã¢â¬Å"to prevent the enemies of the present system from spreading themselves on our unfortunate shores to sully it with new crimesÃ¢â¬ (534). He is saying that he wants to prevent the government from being invaded by people who want to apply slavery once more. It can be argued that he wanted to protect the interests of the people from those who wish to use the Revolution to advance their political and economic interests because St. Domingue is the
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Negotiations - Assignment Example The goal of the customer services representative in this case is to increase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s membership to enhance the profitability of the business. All measures that he takes to achieve this goal including persuading the customer by exaggerating the benefits of buying the membership, and giving references of customers who have benefited from the membership in particular ways, will be termed as the negotiation tactics. The difference between negotiation strategy and negotiation tactics is basically that of why and how. A new biscuits-making company can use operational negotiation to introduce the new brand of biscuits in the market and increase its popularity among the customers by randomly offering people in the markets and public places biscuits for free. The short-term goals of the company in this situation are to advertise the biscuits and make the customers like the biscuits so that they feel convinced to go and buy the same biscuits from the shops, which is the long-term goal of the
Monday, July 22, 2019
Digital Libraries Essay Ashley Tipton Digital Libraries Introduction A simple definition of a digital library is a library where collections are stored in digital formats instead of physical formats and accessible via computers. The content can then be accessed locally, as in within a library, or remotely such as from other places on a college campus or from a users home. Many people believe that digital libraries are the future. There are also those that still hold on to the thought that the traditional brick and mortar building is the way a library is supposed to be and that moving to the digital real is not the direction a library should be heading. History The information revolution is one of the marvels of the 20th century. We are now living in an information society where almost everyone around us has a computer, a smartphone, and is connected to the Internet. As our society has become more and more connected, libraries have also started to become more digitized. Library automation came into popularity in the early 1950s. It started with punched card applications to library technical services operations. In 1965, Licklider coined the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"library of the futureÃ¢â¬ to refer to his vision of a fully computer-based library and then in 1978, F.W. Lancaster wrote of the Ã¢â¬Å"paperless libraryÃ¢â¬ (Harter, 1996). Other terms later on that were used to describe the library of the future were Ã¢â¬Å"electronic library,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"virtual library,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"library without walls,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"bionic libraryÃ¢â¬ (Harter, 1996). The term Ã¢â¬Å"digital libraryÃ¢â¬ came to be from the Digital Libraries Initiative. In 1994, six universities in the United States were granted 24 million dollars for digital library research. This was brought on by the sudden boom of the Internet. Ã¢â¬Å"Digital libraryÃ¢â¬ is the name that was most widely adopted by academics, researchers, and librarians and is used to describe the process of digitizing information resources. Digitization According to Ram Nath Maurya, there is a stress for three things in the digital world (Maurya, 2011): Ã¢â¬ ¢ Awareness of information which gives the breath of vision. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Awareness of technology which gives the power to make the visions manifest. Awareness of needs provide the insight to use professional skills and talents to greater effect. The meaning of this is that it is important for the user to have information that is easily locatable and easily accessible. Nowadays, library patrons have become information conscious and no longer want to wait and go to the library to find what they need. They want to access it access the information electronically. The process of digitizing implies the production of a digital surrogate for a physical object (Unsworth, 2004). There are many different items in libraries that are digitized. This ranges from serials that can be found either in print or online to rare books and archives that are now being preserved in a digital format. There are many positive outcomes that come from digitizing parts of a librarys collection. There is less cost in reshelving the item. The item is simultaneously available to multiple users. The item does not have to be replaced, since it is not being used and there is no chance of it being lost. Also, if it is a rare item, it can be preserved more easily as it will be less frequently handled. Why Go Digital? The most valuable aspect of the digital library is its reduction in cost. There are many fees that are negated such as staff pay, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. This makes the cost of the digital library much less to maintain than that of a traditional library. Also, increased reduction in the use of paper has a positive impact on the environment. Environmental scientists all over the world favor digital libraries to help reduce paper usage. Libraries that have a digital presence can be reached all over the world, thus allowing the library to have a far greater audience beyond their local community. Their collection can be shared and accessed from anywhere. As distance education becomes more popular, it is even more important for libraries to have an online presence. Students who might not be able to physically access their school librarys collection can instead find what they need on their website. Many libraries are offering a vary large amount of databases containing full-text journals and also electronic books. The interlibrary loan program allows students to order books from their own school and other libraries without leaving their home. The role of the librarian in a digital library is still vastly important. They are needed to package and repackage information. Librarians set up the proxies and open-URLs. They do electronic publishing, provide reference instruction, and teach patrons how to use electronic resources. Also, there is always more information that needs to be digitized. Disadvantages of Digital Libraries There are many threats to the nature of digital libraries. Computer viruses are a danger if libraries are not careful to protect their hardware and software. Also, the high initial cost of infrastructure such as the hardware, software, network, and IT professionals can be a downside and then also the cost to maintain and upgrade when needed. Standardization is another issue that libraries can face when moving to a digital format. Each library is different and therefore it is extremely likely that each library will have a very different way of digitizing their collection and presenting their information online. Another potential problem is copyright. Digital libraries have to find a way to properly distribute information without violating copyright law. The copyright of the author has to be protected as items are digitized and put into an online collection. Future of Digital Libraries The future trend for libraries is to keep moving toward a digital format. Daniel Akst, the author of The Webster Chronicle, sums it up in one simple statement: Ã¢â¬Å"the future of libraries-and of information-is digital. Ã¢â¬ He states, Ã¢â¬Å"All the problems associated with digital libraries are wrapped up in archiving,Ã¢â¬ and goes on to state, Ã¢â¬Å"if in 100 years people can still read your article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll have solved the problemÃ¢â¬ . Computer storage continues to grow at an exponential rate and the cost keeps going down. It is believed that eventually, given the current advancement of technology, a person will be able to virtually access all recorded information. There are many large scale digitization projects underway at places such as Google, the Million Book Project, and Internet Archive. The technology behind scanners and the digitization techniques also keeps improving. There have been recent advancements in how books are handled and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition. Libraries will continue to become more equipped to digitize their own collections and share them with the world. Bibliography Akst, Daniel. The Webster Chronicle. New York: Bluehen, 2002. Print. Harter, S. (1996, September). What is a digital library? definitions, content, and issues. A paper presented at KOLISS DL 96: international conference on digital libraries and information services for the 21st century, Seoul, Korea. Retrieved from http://php. indiana. edu/~harter/koreapaper. htm Lagoze, C. , Krafft, D. , Payette, S. , Jesuroga, S. (2005). What is a digital library anymore, anyway?. D-Lib Magazine, 11(11), Retrieved from http://www. dlib. org/dlib/november05/lagoze/11lagoze. html Maurya, R. (2011). Digital library and digitization. International Journal of Information Dissemination Technology. , 1(4), 228-331. Retrieved from http://web. ebscohost. com. proxy. lib. fsu. edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=7hid=9[emailprotected] Unsworth, J. (2004, May 17). The value of digitization for libraries and humanities scholarship. Retrieved from http://people. lis. illinois. edu/~unsworth/newberry. 04. htmlÃ'Å½
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Purposes of Economic Sanctions Anne Cook 1. Table of Contents (jump to) 1. Table of Content 2. Abstract Summary 3. Introduction 4. Body 5. Conclusions 6. Bibliography 2. Abstract Summary Economic sanctions, which comprise trade and financial components, are imposed by governments or the United Nations on target countries for the express purpose of achieving the sender countries objectives. They are imposed when diplomatic negotiations have broken down and as an alternative to conflict or warfare. The United States and the European Union, with the UN, are the major sender countries involved, with the US having broader defined purposes. Economic sanctions can be applied unilaterally or collectively. There is concern regarding the high volume of economic sanctions applied by the US and the legality of their defined purposes. This study also concludes that the defined purpose may not result in the desired outcomes, and can inflict economic burden on the sender country. 3. Introduction This paper deals specifically with defining and discussing the purpose of economic sanctions. This will be done in the context of the current purposes, which have changed considerably from historic times when economic sanctions were primarily imposed prior to going to war or in conjunction with military hostilities. Economic sanctions are defined as: Ã¢â¬ËEconomic, trade or financial sanctions are imposed by governments or the United Nations to exert pressure on individuals or political regimes and for the advancement of foreign policy objectives. Sanctions include a range of financial or trading restrictions, such as freezes on the assets of and travel restrictions on nominated individuals, bans on financing of state-owned enterprises, prohibitions on the supply of technical, financial and other assistance and outright prohibitions on trade.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ref http://www.lloyds.com There are two specific types of economic sanctions Ref http://www.globalpolicy.org (a) Trade Sanctions Trade sanctions restrict imports and exports to and from the target country. These restrictions can be comprehensive, as in the case of Iraq, or they can be selective, only restricting certain goods often connected with a trade dispute. (b) Financial sanctions Financial sanctions address monetary issues. They can include, blocking government assets held abroad, limiting access to financial markets and restricting loans and credits, restricting international transfer payments and restricting the sale and trade of property abroad. The freezing of development aid also falls into this category. There is substantial overlap between financial and trade sanctions, especially when applied comprehensively, since with their foreign assets frozen and access to new funds blocked, Governments will be unable to pay for imports, and trade will suffer. 4. Body Sanctions can be applied unilaterally or collectively and different rules will apply to each sanctions regime. Research shows that collective sanctions are more effective than those unilaterally applied. The following list from Lloyds identifies the following countries targeted by the EU the US as at May 2006 Myanmar (Burma) (EU and US) Belarus (EU) Democratic Republic of Congo (EU) Cuba (US only) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia (EU and US) Iran (US only) Iraq (EU and US) Ivory Coast (EU only) Lebanon Syria (EU and US) Liberia (EU and US) Libya (US only) North Korea (US only) Sudan (EU and US) Zimbabwe (EU and US) Some of these sanctions affect designated individuals only in the targeted country. There are also sanctions in place against named individuals or entities who: Are indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia; Belong or are related to the Taliban, Usama Bin Laden and the Al-QaÃ¢â¬â¢ida network; Are suspected terrorists. Many countries impose economic sanctions against others. However, due to their finacial muscle in the internationel economy, the United States and the European Union are the major Ã¢â¬ËsendersÃ¢â¬â¢ of economic sanctions and their stated purpose of applying such sanctions differ if one looks at their stated purpose for the imposition of sanctions by the major senders.. United States Purpose for Economic Sanctions Ref http://www.fas.org/man/crs/crs-sanction.htm, The U. S. government may choose to impose economic sanctions: to express its condemnation of a particular practice such as military aggression; human rights violations; militarization that destabilizes a country, its neighbors or the region; proliferation of nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons or missiles; political, economic, or military intimidation; terrorism; drug trafficking; or extreme national political policies contrary to basic interests of values of the United States (e.g., apartheid, communism); to punish those engaged in objectionable behavior and deter its repetition; to make it more expensive, difficult, or time-consuming to engage in objectionable behavior; to block the flow of economic support that could be used by the targeted entity against the United States or U.S. interests; to dissuade others from engaging in objectionable behavior; to isolate a targeted country (or company or individual); to force a change or termination of objectionable behavior; or to coerce a change in the leadership or form of government in a targeted country. European Union Purpose for Economic Sanctions The European Union has a common list of objectives which all member countries adhere to. Ref,  http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/cfsp/sanctions/index.htm The European Union applies sanctions or restrictive measures in pursuit of the following specific objectives: To safeguard the common values, fundamental interests, independence and integrity of the Union in conformity with the principles of the United Nations Charter; To strengthen the security of the Union in all ways; To preserve peace and strengthen international security, in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter, the Helsinki Final Act, and the objectives of the Paris Charter, including those on external borders; To promote international cooperation To develop and consolidate democracy and the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. In addition to the 2 economic superpowers listed about, the Security Council of the United Nations has a charter for the imposing of sanctions. Ref http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/INTRO.htm United Nations Purpose for Economic Sanctions Ã¢â¬ËUnder Chapter VII of the Charter, the Security Council can take enforcement measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such measures range from economic and/or other sanctions not involving the use of armed force to international military action. The use of mandatory sanctions is intended to apply pressure on a State or entity to comply with the objectives set by the Security Council without resorting to the use of force. Sanctions thus offer the Security Council an important instrument to enforce its decisions. The universal character of the United Nations makes it an especially appropriate body to establish and monitor such measures. The Council has resorted to mandatory sanctions as an enforcement tool when peace has been threatened and diplomatic efforts have failed. The range of sanctions has included comprehensive economic and trade sanctions and/or more targeted measures such as arms embargoes, travel bans, financial or diplomatic restrictions.Ã¢â¬â¢ Addition Comments There is a growing trend to apply economic sanctions in order to protect industries or supply in the senders home country; this is increasingly considered outside the original purpose of economic sanctions and scolars debate that this is protectionism using economic sanctions as a tool to look after the senders domestic market. One example, that led to retaliation from the EU, was against steel imports to the US from lower priced sources. In 2002, The United States places import tariffs on steel in an effort to protect its industry from more efficient foreign producers such as China and Russia. The World Trade Organisation ruled that these tariffs were illegal. The backlash from Europe resulted in the tariffs being dropped before the EU applied tariffs against the US s reported in the New York Times Dec 5, 2003 ref http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F2091EF93F590C768CDDAB0994DB404482n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fOrganizations%2fE%2fEuropean%20Union%20 President Bush lifts tariffs on imported steel, averting trade war with Europe but risking political backlash in some industrial states heading into 2004 Presidential election; cites improving economy and cost-cutting efforts by domestic steel makers as reasons for his decision to lift tariffs 21 months after they were imposed; original goal was to keep them in place for as long as three years; announcement of his decision immediately leads European Union to drop its plan to retaliate with tariffs on variety of American exports from states vital to Bushs political fortunes; Bush says he will continue program to monitor steel imports to detect any destabilizing surges of cheap foreign steel, and that United States will also continue pressing other nations to stop subsidizing their own inefficient steel producers In addition, the US (in 1999) had imposed unilateral economic sanctions on 75 countries Ã¢â¬â the purpose and high volume of economic sanctions is increasingly being questioned in the light of the stated purposes for which they should be applied. Ref http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/half-cn.htm Ã¢â¬ËHalf the World Hit by Unilateral Sanctions, by Someshwar Singh Ã¢â¬ËGeneva, 21 Dec 99 More than half of the worlds population in 75 countries is subject to unilateral coercive economic measures or sanctions by one country alone the United States of America according to a recent report by the United Nations.Ã¢â¬â¢ The longest standing unilateral economic sanction enacted by the US, is that against Cuba. This has been in effect since 1960 and has failed to achieve their original purpose. After 46 years the Fidel Castro government is still in power, and maintains its commitment to Communism, even after the fall of the Soviet Union. Ref the US Chamber of Commerce http://www.uschamber.com/issues/index/international/cuba.htmCuba and Unilateral Sanctions The United States has maintained an embargo on trade with Cuba since October 1960. Implemented to pressure the Castro regime to democratize, these unilateral sanctions have completely failed to achieve their objective. The U.S. Chamber has long argued that unilateral sanctions do not work. Too often, they serve to make a martyr of a tyrant and actually help prop up authoritarian regimes. Unilateral sanctions also isolate the United States from its allies while denying U.S. CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s access to markets in which third-country firms can do business easily. 5. Conclusions The US stated purposes for applying economic sanctions are broader and more far reaching than those documented for the European Union and the United Nations. Economic sanctions have been used by the United States to protect local industry and arguably are a tool used in providing protectionism. The US has also enacted sections in higher volumes in recent years. However, the purpose that invoke sanctions are often circumnavigated by services and goods being supplied by alternative countries or the purpose itself is not met at all. The 45-year embargos against Cuba by the US have not fulfilled their purpose that was to force Fidel Castro to renounce communism. The purpose for engaging in sanctions by the sender is often not the eventual outcome in the target country. The European Union imposes economic sanctions within the framework of the United Nations Charter. The motives and desired outcomes for imposing sanctions vary by sender country as a result of these differences in purpose. In general, internationally, the application of sanctions should be introduced when diplomatic channels have failed and to avoid conflict or war. There is increasing statistics that show that the imposition of economic sanctions can result in more harm to the sender country than the target. With the current level of globalization, the target can find alternative sources for goods an/or services. The effects on the host and target countries should be the subject of a further paper to provide a broad framework for discussion on this topic. 6. Bibliography Common Policy and Security Policy of the European Union in the World, http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/cfsp/sanctions/index.htm Ã¢â¬ËEconomic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy GoalsÃ¢â¬â¢, Dianne E. Rennack, Analyst in Foreign Policy Legislation Robert D. Shuey, Specialist in U.S. Foreign Policy and National Defense on the Federation of American Scientists web http://www.fas.org/man/crs/crs-sanction.htm Global Policy Forum, the United Nations http://www.globalpolicy.org Lloyds of London, http://www.lloyds.com The New York Times http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F2091EF93F590C768CDDAB0994DB404482n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fOrganizations%2fE%2fEuropean%20Union%20 The US Chamber of Commerce http://www.uschamber.com/issues/index/international/cuba.htm Third World Network http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/half-cn.htm UN Security Council Ã¢â¬â Sanctions Committee http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/INTRO.htm Page 1 of 10  Lloyds of London http://www.lloyds.com  Global Policy Forum, the United Nations http://www.globalpolicy.org  Ã¢â¬ËEconomic Sanctions to Achieve U.S. Foreign Policy GoalsÃ¢â¬â¢, Dianne E. Rennack, Analyst in Foreign Policy Legislation Robert D. Shuey, Specialist in U.S. Foreign Policy and National Defense on the Federation of American Scientists web http://www.fas.org/man/crs/crs-sanction.htm  Common Policy and Security Policy of the European Union in the World, http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/cfsp/sanctions/index.htm  United Nations, Security Council http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/INTRO.htm  New York Times http://select.nytimes.com  The US Chamber of Commerce http://www.uschamber.com/issues/index/international/cuba.htm  New York Times
A Pestel Analysis Of Malaysia Economics Essay Introduction During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore and the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo joined the Federation. The first several years of the countrys history were marred by a Communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapores secession from the Federation in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to expansion in manufacturing, services, and tourism. Economy overview: Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, medical technology, and pharmaceuticals. The NAJIB administration also is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and to wean the economy off of its dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports particularly of electronics remain a significant driver of the economy. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with strained government finances, has forced Kuala Lumpur to reduce government subsidies. The government is also trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas, which supplies at least 40% of government revenue. The central bank maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves and its well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysias exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, decreasing worldwide demand for consumer goods hurt Malaysias exports and economic growth in 2009, although both showed signs of recovery in 2010. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB has also sought to revise the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but he has encountered significant opposition, especially from Malay na tionalists. Statistics GDP $381.1 billion (2009 est.)Rank: 30 GDP growth 2.2% (2009 est.) GDP per capita $14,800 (2009 est.) GDP by sector agriculture: 10.1% industry: 42.3% services: 47.6% Inflation (CPI) 0.4% (2009 est.) Population below poverty line 3.5% (2007 est.) Labour force by occupation agriculture: (13%), industry: (36%), services: (51%) Unemployment 5% (2009 est.) Main industries Peninsular Malaysia rubber and palm oil processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber, tourism, petroleum production and refining, logging Economic Policies The Malaysian New Economic Policy was created in 1971 with the aim of bringing Malays a 30% share of the economy of Malaysia and eradicating poverty amongst Malays, primarily through encouraging enterprise ownership by Bumiputeras. After 30 years of the program, the NEP had somewhat met some of its goals. Bumiputera ownership increased to 18.9% in 2004 against 2.4% in 1970 and poverty decreased to 8.3% in 2004 against 64.8% in the 1970s. The NEP is accused of creating an oligarchy, and creating a subsidy mentality. Political parties such as Parti Keadilan Rakyat and Democratic Action Party have proposed a new policy which will be equal for every Malaysian, regardless of race. When the Democratic Action Party was elected in the state of Penang in 2008, it announced that it will do away with the NEP, claiming that it Ã breeds nepotism, corruption and systemic inefficiency. On April 21, 2009, the prime minister Najib Tun Razak has announced liberalisation of 27 services sub-sector by abolishing the 30% bumiputera requirement. The move is seen as the government efforts to increase investment the service sector of the economy. According to the premier, many more sectors of the economy will be liberalized. On June 30, 2009, the premier announces further liberation moves including the dismantling of the Bumiputera equity quotas and repealing the guidelines of the Foreign Investment Committee, which was responsible to monitor foreign shareholding in Malaysian companies. However, any Malaysian companies that wish to list in Malaysia would still need to offer 50 percent of public shareholding spread to Bumiputera investors. Politics of Malaysia The politics of Malaysia takes place in the framework of a federal constitutional monarchy, in which the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is head of state and the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the federal government and the 13 state governments. Federal legislative power is vested in the federal parliament and the 13 state assemblies. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, though the executive maintains a certain level of influence in the appointment of judges to the courts. The Constitution of Malaysia is codified and the system of government is based on the Westminster system. Malaysia has a multi-party system since the first direct election of the Federal Legislative Council of Malaya in 1955 on a first-past-the-post basis. The ruling party since then has always been the Alliance Party (Malay: Parti Perikatan) coalition and subsequently from 1973 onwards, its successor the Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition. The Barisan Nasional coalition currently consists of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC) and 11 other political parties. Although Malaysian politics has been relatively stable, critics allege that the government, ruling party, and administrationare intertwined with few countervailing forces. However, since 8 March 2008 General Election, medias coverage on countrys politics has been noticeably increased, making the politics more transparent to the citizens. The current Prime Minister is Dato Seri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak. He took office following the retirement of Dato Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi (colloquially known as Pak Lah) on April, 2009. The national media are largely controlled by the government and by political parties in the Barisan Nasional/National Front ruling coalition and the opposition has little access to the media. The print media are controlled by the Government through the requirement of obtaining annual publication licences under the Printing and Presses Act. In 2007, a government agency the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders. The official state ideology is the Rukunegara, which has been described as encouraging respect for a pluralistic, multireligious and multicultural society. However, political scientists have argued that the slogan of Bangsa, Agama, Negara (race, religion, nation) used by UMNO constitutes an unofficial ideology as well. Both ideologies have generally been used to reinforce a conservative political ideology, one that is Malay-centred Executive power is vested in the cabinet led by the prime minister; the Malaysian constitution stipulates that the prime minister must be a member of the lower house of parliament who, in the opinion of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, commands a majority in parliament. The cabinet is chosen from among members of both houses of Parliament and is responsible to that body. In recent years the opposition have been campaigning for free and fairer elections within Malaysia. On 10 November 2007, a mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, took place in the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur at 3pm to demand for clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by BERSIH, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups(NGOs), and drew supporters from all over the country. Malaysias government has intensified efforts on March 6, 2008 to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as a political turncoat, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on March 8, 2008 that will determine whether he poses a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition. Campaigning wrapped up March 7, 2008 for general elections that could see gains for Malaysias opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians. Malaysians voted March 8, 2008 in parliamentary elections. Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties. Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which has retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, are the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions. Law of Malaysia The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system. This was a direct result of the colonisation of Malaya, Sarawak, and North Borneo by Britain from the early 19th century to 1960s. The supreme law of the land-the Constitution of Malaysia-sets out the legal framework and rights of Malaysian citizens. Federal laws enacted by the Parliament of Malaysia applies throughout the country. There are also state laws enacted by the State Legislative Assemblies which applies in the particular state. The constitution of Malaysia also provides for a unique dual justice system-the secular laws (criminal and civil) and sharia laws. Dual justice system The dual system of law is provided in Article 121(1A) of the Constitution of Malaysia. Article 3 also provides that Islamic law is a state law matter with the exception for the Federal Territories of Malaysia. Islamic law refers to the sharia law, and in Malaysia it is known and spelled as syariah. The court is known as the Syariah Court. Looking at the Malaysian legal system as a whole, sharia law plays a relatively small role in defining the laws on the country. It only applies to Muslims. With regards to civil law, the Syariah courts has jurisdiction in personal law matters, for example marriage, inheritance, and apostasy. In some states there are sharia criminal laws, for example there is the Kelantan Syariah Criminal Code Enactment 1993. Their jurisdiction is however limited to imposing fines for an amount not more than RM 3000, and imprisonment to not more than 6 months. In August 2007, the then Chief Justice of Malaysia proposed to replace the current common law applicat ion in Malaysia with sharia law. As an example of the dual system, sometimes a nightclub is raided, and Muslim patrons drinking alcohol are prosecuted in Shariah courts, while the others are allowed to drink. Also the nightclub operator is not charged with any offense, because he is not legally required to check if customers are Muslim before serving them. Complications Complications have arisen with regard to the dual justice system, for example with regard to freedom of religion. Article 11 of the Constitution provides that Every person has the right to profess and practice his religion. However in the case of Lina Joy-a Malay who converted to Christianity-the Federal Court of Malaysia refused to allow her to change her religion indicated in her identity card (MyKad). The judges held that they had no jurisdiction on the matter-that it was a matter of the Syariah Court, as indicated in Article 121(1A) of the Constitution. Technology in Malaysia Science Policy in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. Other ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health also have science departments. Training in scientific areas was promoted during the 1970s and 1980s. From 1987-1997 research and development used 0.24% of GNP, and in 1998 high-tech exports made up 54% of Malaysias manufactured exports. In 2002 the Malaysian National Space Agency (Angkasa) was formed to deal with all of Malaysias activities in space, and to promote space education and space experiments. It is focused on developing the RazakSAT satellite, which is a remote sensing satellite with CCD cameras. In early 2006, Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and three other finalists were selected for the Angkasawan spaceflight programme. This programme came about when Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multi-billion dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In an effort to create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development Malaysia privatized some of its military facilities in the 1970s. This has created a defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. The government continues to try and promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry. One way it does this is through the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition, one of the largest defence and civil showcases in the Asia Pacific, regularly attended by over 500 companies. The Malaysian Armed Forces relies heavily on local military technology and high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured by foreign countries. Environment of Malaysia The environment of Malaysia refers to the biotas and geologies that constitute the natural environment of this Southeast Asian nation. Ecologically, Malaysia is a megadiverse nation with a biodiverse range of flora and fauna found in various ecoregions throughout the country. Tropical rainforests encompass from 59% to 70% of Malaysias total land area, of which 11.6% is pristine. Malaysia has the worlds fifth largest mangrove area, which totals over a half a million hectares (over 1.2 million acres). Human intervention poses a significant threat to the natural environment of this country. Agriculture, forestry and urbanisation contribute to the destruction of forests, mangroves and other thriving ecosystems in the country. Ecosystems and landscapes are dramatically altered by human development, including but not limited to the construction of roads and damming of rivers. Geographical phenomena, such as landslides and flooding in the Klang Valley, along with haze, stem from widespread deforestation. Subtle climate change occurs as a direct result of air pollution and the greenhouse effect, which in turn is caused by the emission of greenhouse gases. Low-lying areas near the coastline of Sabah and Sarawak are under threat from current sea level rise. The environment is the subject of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment at the federal level. The Department of Wildlife and National Parks is responsible for the preservation of flora and fauna in Malaysia. Several environmental organisations have been established to raise awareness regarding the environmental issues in Malaysia. Environmental issues There are a number of environmental issues faced by Malaysia, such as deforestation and pollution. According to a study by Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies in 2008, about 30% of Malaysian coastline is subject to varying degrees of erosion. According to the United Nations, Malaysias deforestation rate is the highest among tropical nations. The countrys annual deforestation rate increased 86% between 1999-2000 and 2000-2005. Malaysia lost an average of 140,200 hectares of its forests or 0.65% of its total forest area every year since 2000, whereas in the 1990s, the country lost an average of 78,500 hectares or 0.35 percent of its forests annually. Widespread urbanisation, agricultural fires and forest conversion for oil palm plantations and other forms of agriculture are the main causes of Malaysias high deforestation rate. Logging is responsible for forest degradation in the country, and local timber companies have been accused by environmental organisations of failing to practice sustainable forest management. Mining in peninsular Malaysia has left a mark on the environment. Deforestation, pollution of rivers, and siltation have resulted in losses of agriculture, and road projects have opened new areas to colonisation. Air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions is a major issue in the urban areas of Malaysia. Malaysia is ranked 42nd in the world in terms of vehicle ownership per capita, with 273 Malaysians having vehicles out of every 1000. Public transportation has been introduced in the form of bus networks and railway systems as mitigation, but utilisation rates are low. Water pollution occurs due to the discharge of untreated sewage; the west coast of the Peninsular Malaysia is the most heavily populated area. 40% of the rivers in Malaysia are heavily polluted. The country has 580 cubic km of water, of which 76% is used for farming and 13% is used for industrial activity. Cities in Malaysia produce an average of 1.5 million tons of solid waste per year. In 2000, Malaysia was ranked fourth in the world in terms of per capita greenhouse gas emissions after taking into account land use change with 37.2 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita. Periodic fires, which usually coincide with the events of el NiÃ ±o, burn thousands of hectares of forests across Malaysia, especially in Malaysian Borneo. The haze originating from these fires and the fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia typically have adverse health effects on the populace, besides causing air pollution. In particular, the 1997 Southeast Asian haze, the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 2006 Southeast Asian haze were caused by slash and burn activities in neighbouring Indonesia. Society of Malaysia Malaysia is a multi-cultural society. The main ethnic groups are the native Malays as well as large populations of Chinese, and Indians. When visiting the country it is clear that the ethnicities retain their religions, customs and way of life. The most important festivals of each group are public holidays. Although growing up, children are educated in the same schools and will eventually work in the same offices, few marry outside their own ethnicity. Families tend to socialise within their own ethnic group all part of retaining their individual traditions and lifestyles. Despite the ethnic differences there are commonalities culturally speaking. Social Stratification Classes and Castes- Class position in Malaysia depends on a combination of political connections, specialized skills, ability in English, and family money. The Malaysian elite, trained in overseas universities, is highly cosmopolitan and continues to grow in dominance as Malaysias middle class expands. Even with the substantial stratification of society by ethnicity, similar class experiences in business and lifestyle are bridging old barriers. Symbols of Social Stratification- In Malaysias market economy, consumption provides the primary symbols of stratification. Newly wealthy Malaysians learn how to consume by following the lead of the Malay royalty and the prosperous business families of Chinese descent. A mobile phone, gold jewelry, and fashionable clothing all indicate ones high rank in the Malaysian social order. Given the striking mobility of Malaysian society, ones vehicle marks class position even more than home ownership. Most Malaysians can distinguish the difference between makes of cars, and access to at least a motor scooter is a requirement for participation in contemporary Malaysian social life. Kuala Lumpur has more motor vehicles than people. Skin color, often indicative of less or more time working in the hot tropical sun, further marks class position. Distinct class differences also appear in speech. Knowledge of English is vital to elevated class status, and a persons fluency in that language indexes t heir social background. Social Welfare and Change Programs The Malaysian government has promoted rapid social change to integrate a national society from its ethnic divisions. Its grandest program was originally called the New Economic Policy (NEP), implemented between 1971 and 1990 and continued in modified form as the National Development Policy (NDP). Since poverty eradication was an aim of the NEP a considerable amount of energy has gone to social welfare efforts. The consequences of these programs disseminate across the social landscape: home mortgages feature two rates, a lower one for Malays and a higher one for others; university admissions promote Malay enrolment; mundane government functions such as allocating hawker licenses have an ethnic component. But the government has also tried to ethnically integrate Malaysias wealthy class; therefore many NEP-inspired ethnic preferences have allowed prosperous Malays to accrue even greater wealth. The dream of creating an affluent Malaysia continues in the governments 1991 plan of Vision 2 020, which projects that the country will be fully developed by the year 2020. This new vision places faith in high technology, including the creation of a Multi-Media Super Corridor outside of Kuala Lumpur, as the means for Malaysia to join the ranks of wealthy industrialized countries, and to develop a more unified society. Porters Diamond of Competitiveness Factor conditions: These are the economists traditional factors of production: land, labor, capital, and infrastructure. Demand conditions: The characteristics of the domestic market, including the size, demand, value, and sophistication. Related supporting industries: The presence of suppliers and supporting industries that are equally competitive and of high quality. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry: The regulatory and other governmental environment in which companies are created, organized, and managed, including the nature of the domestic competition. Stages in Economic Development The relative importance of the four factors depends on the stage of economic development of the industry or country. National economies, like industries, go through stages in their development. The first stage is factor-driven, with the economy based essentially on the traditional factors of production: natural resources, commodities, and availability of cheap power and labor. This was Malaysia of the 1960s and 70s, its primary competitive advantage being its cheap resources (rubber and tin), land and labor, and favorable tax treatment. These advantages were not only limiting but also transient. When commodity prices dropped, Malaysia lost its competitive advantage. When China entered the game with her endless supply of even cheaper labor and land, Malaysia could hardly compete. During this phase, the basic source of competitive advantage is obviously the factor conditions of the diamond. The next stage is investment driven where the competitive advantage is governed by the willingness of firms and nations to invest in modern factories, upgrade the skills of their workers, and adopt efficient technology. Factor conditions are still important, but in addition, the fourth-firms strategy, structure and rivalry-becomes the major determinant. This is where Malaysia is currently. The third stage is innovation driven where all four points of the diamond are in full play. This is where Malaysia aspires to be. With all four points in equal play, the relative role of factor-driven variables like cheap labor and commodities becomes relatively less important.